Thursday, January 3, 2008

Timeline of Great Events; 19th Century

1800 Yevgeny Abramovich Baratynsky, Russian Romantic and symbolist poet, b. (d. 1844) Russia/USSR
1800 Library of Congress established in Washington D.C. United States
1800 Napoleon established as first council in the Tuileries Europe
1800 Maria Edgeworth's novel "Castle Rackrent" published UK/Ireland
1800 Napoleon's army invades Italy Europe
1800 Irish Rebellion; Britain and Ireland unite
1800 Thomas Jefferson elected President
1800 F.J. Gall founds the practice of Phrenology, the practice of uncovering personality traits by reading bumps on the cranium Europe
1800 Eli Whitney introduces muskets with interchangeable parts United States
1800, April 25 William Cowper, British poet, author of "The Task," d. (b. 1731) UK/Ireland
1800, October 2 Nat Turner, United States Slave responsible for the slave rebellion in United States b. (d. 1831) United States
1800, October 25 Thomas Babington Macaulay, British essayist and historian, b. (d. 1859) UK/Ireland
1801 Peace of Luneville between Austria and France amounts to the actual end of the Holy Roman Empire Europe
1801 Russian Czar Paul I assassinated after political blunders, succeeded by Alexander I Russia/USSR
1801 Ireland joins Great Britain, forming the United Kingdom UK/Ireland
1801 Maria Edgeworth's novel "Belinda" published UK/Ireland
1801 Robert Fulton introduces "Nautilus," the first submarine United States
1801, February 21 John Henry Cardinal Newman, English essayist and Catholic cardinal, author of "Idea of a University," b. (d. 1890) UK/Ireland
1802 Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem "Dejection: An Ode" published UK/Ireland
1802 William Wordsworth's poem "My Heart Leaps up When I Behold" published UK/Ireland
1802 Napoleon becomes President of the Italian Republic Europe
1802 Toussaint-L'Ouverture leads Negro rebellion in Santo Domingo, subsequently suppressed by France Europe
1802 William Wordsworth's poem "Ode: Intimations of Immortality" published UK/Ireland
1802 Physicist John Dalton introduces atomic theory United States
1802 "The Edinburgh Review," British quarterly journal, founded UK/Ireland
1802 Gottfried Treviranus, German naturalist, coins the term "biology" Europe
1802 Stendahl (Marie Henri Beyle), French novelist, d. (b. 1783) Europe
1802, February 26 Victor Hugo, French novelist, author of "Les Miserables" b. (d. 1885) Europe
1802, March 25 Peace Treaty of Amiens between Britain and France, marking the end of the second coalition Worldwide/
1802, July 24 Alexandre Dumas, French novelist, b. (d. 1870) Europe
1803 Robert Fulton propels a boat via steam power United States
1803 Thomas Beddoes, British poet, author of "Song from the Ship," b. (d. 1849) UK/Ireland
1803 Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev, Russian poet, author of "The Nobleman," b. (d. 1873) Russia/USSR
1803 Pierre-Ambroise-Francois Choloeros de Laclos, French novelist, author of "Dangerous Liaisons," d. (b. 1741) Europe
1803 English inventor Henry Shrapnel invents 'shell' UK/Ireland
1803, April 30 Louisiana Purchase from France for $15,000,000.
1803, May 25 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American philosopher, author of the essay "Self-Reliance," b. (d. 1882) United States
1804 Napoleon declared Emperor in Paris Europe
1804 Thomas Bewick's "History of British Birds" completed UK/Ireland
1804, February 12 Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, author of "Critique of pure Reason," d. (b. 1724) Europe
1804, July 1 George Sand, French writer, author of the novel "Consuelo," b. (d. 1876) Europe
1804, July 4 Nathaniel Hawthorne, American novelist, author of "The Scarlet Letter," b. (d. 1864) United States
1804, July 11 Alexander Hamilton killed by Aaron Burr in famous duel over differing political views United States
1805 Battle of Trafalgar Europe
1805 Mungo Park makes second expedition to Niger River Africa
1805, April 2 Hans Christian Andersen, Danish author of stories for children, b. (d. 1875) Europe
1805, May 9 Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller, German playwright, author of "Don Carlos" d. (b. 1759) Europe
1806 Prussia declares war on France Worldwide
1806 Britain's cotton industry employs 90,000 factory workers UK/Ireland
1806, March 6 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, British poet, author of "The Seraphim and Other Poems," b. (d. 1861) UK/Ireland
1806, May 20 John Stuart Mill, British philosopher, author of "On Liberty," b. (d. 1873) UK/Ireland
1807 William Wordsworth's poem "The World is Too Much With Us" published UK/Ireland
1807 Treaty of Tilsit marks high-water mark of Napoleon's empire
1807 Madame de Stael's novel "Corrine" published Europe
1807 U.S. Embargo Act against Britain and France Worldwide
1807 Britain prohibits slave trade UK/Ireland
1807 London streets lit by gas lamps for first time UK/Ireland
1807, June The Chesapeake incident between U.S. and Britain in which the crew of the Chesapeake refused to allow the Leopard's crew to search their vessel for British deserters Worldwide
1808 United States prohibits importation of Slaves from Africa United States
1808 Sir Walter Scott's poem "Marmion" published UK/Ireland
1808 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's "Faust," Part I, published Europe
1808 Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy Europe
1808 Heinrich van Kliest's play "The Broken Pitcher" published Europe
1808, February 12 Charles Darwin, biologist, author of "Origin of the Species" b. (d. 1882) UK/Ireland
c. 1809 Pope Pius VII taken prisoner Europe
1809 Elizabeth Seton founds Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in the United States United States
1809, January 19 Edgar Allan Poe, American poet and short story writer, author of "The Raven," b. (d. 1849) United States
1809, January 29 Thomas Paine, English-born American pamphleteer, author of "Common Sense," d. (b. 1737) United States
1809, March 31 Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol, Russian author of "The Overcoat," b. (d. 1852) Russia/USSR
1809, August 6 Alfred Lord Tennyson, British poet, author of "In Memoriam" b. (d. 1892) UK/Ireland
1809, August 29 Oliver Wendell Holmes, American author of the poem "Old Ironsides, "b. (d. 1894) United States
1810 Start of revolutions in Spanish America; by 1826 all Spain's American colonies are independent Worldwide
1810 Durham miner's strike United States
1810, May 23 Margaret Fuller, American transcendentalist and woman of letters, b. (d. 1850) United States
1810, September 29 Elizabeth Gaskell, British novelist, author of "North and South," b. (d. 1865) UK/Ireland
1811 Harrison defeats Indians under Tecumseh at Tippecanoe, Indiana United States
1811 "Great Schism" in which two-thirds of Welsch Protestants leave the Anglican Church UK/Ireland
1811 Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 "Luddites" destroy industrial machinery in North England UK/Ireland
1811, June 14 Harriet Beecher Stowe, American novelist, author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," b. (d. 1896) United States
1811, June 14 Jane Austen's "Sense and Sensibility" published UK/Ireland
1811, July 18 William Makepeace Thackeray, British novelist, b. (d. 1863) UK/Ireland
1812 War of 1812 between British Empire and the United States of America Worldwide
1812 Napoleon arrives in Paris with Army reduced in size from 550,000 to 20,000 as a result of Russian campaign Europe
1812 British Prime Minister Perceval assassinated in the House of Commons UK/Ireland
1812 The Grimm Brothers' "Grimm's Fairy Tales Collection" published Europe
1812 Maria Edgeworth's novel "The Absentee" published UK/Ireland
1812 Lord Byron's poem "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" published UK/Ireland
1812 Drury Lane theater erected in London UK/Ireland
1812, February 7 Charles Dickens, British novelist, author of "A Tale of Two Cities," b. (d. 1870) UK/Ireland
1812, May 7 Robert Browning, British author, b. (d. 1889) UK/Ireland
1812, June Napoleon enters Russia and retreats (June 24 -- Oct 19) Europe
1813 Johann David Wyss' "The Swiss Family Robinson" published Europe
1813 Austria declares war on France Worldwide
1813 Jane Austen's "Pride and Prejudice" published UK/Ireland
1813 Mexico declares itself independent Mexico/Central & South America
1813 Indian trade monopoly of East India Company abolished Asia
1813, April 17 Susan Augusta Fennimore Cooper, author and philanthropist, daughter of James Fenimore Cooper, b. (d. 1894) United States
1813, May 5 Soren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, author of "Stages on Life's Way," b. (d. 1855) UK/Ireland
1814 Defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo Europe
1814 Napoleon banished to Elba Europe
1814 British burn Washington, DC
1814 Marquis de Sade, d. (b. 1740) Europe
1814 Jane Austen's "Mansfield Park" published UK/Ireland
1814 Pope Pius VII returns to Rome and restores the Inquisition Europe
1814 Francis Scott Key writes poem to become US national anthem (The Star-Spangled Banner") United States
1814 London's "Times" printed by steam operated press UK/Ireland
1814, August 28 Joseph Sheridan le Fanu, Irish novelist, author of short story "The House by the Churchyard," b. (d. 1873) UK/Ireland
1815 Napoleon leaves Elba for France and the "Hundred Days" begin Europe
1815 Stamp Act passed in Britain UK/Ireland
1815 Jane Austen's "Emma" published UK/Ireland
1815 Napoleon defeated at Battle of Waterloo Europe
1815 Napoleon banished to St. Helena Europe
1815 End of Napoleonic Wars (1799 -- 1815) Europe
1815 Corn Law passed in Britain UK/Ireland
1815 British income taxes end (to begin again in 1842) UK/Ireland
1815 Britain's Apothecaries Act forbids unqualified doctors to practice medicine UK/Ireland
1815 First steam warship "U. S. S. Fulton" United States
1815, April 24 Anthony Trollope, English Novelist of Victorian Era, b. (d. 1882) UK/Ireland
1816 Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Kubla Khan" published (written in 1797) UK/Ireland
1816, April 17 Charlotte Bronte, British novelist, b. (d. 1855) UK/Ireland
1817 "Blackwood's Magazine" founded in Edinburgh UK/Ireland
1817 Samuel Taylor Coleridge's essays "Biographia Literaria" published UK/Ireland
1817 Jane Austen's "Northanger Abbey" published UK/Ireland
1817 Jane Austen's "Persuasion" published UK/Ireland
1817 Wage riots erupt in Derbyshire, England UK/Ireland
1817 U.S. construction of Erie canal begins United States
1817, July 12 Henry David Thoreau, American author, b. (d. 1862) United States
1817, July 14 Madame de Stael, French playwright and novelist, d. (b. 1766) Europe
1817, July 18 Jane Austen, British novelist d. (b.1775) UK/Ireland
1818 Border between Canada & U.S. established (49th parallel) United States
1818 Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein: or The Modern Prometheus" published UK/Ireland
1818 John Keats' "Endymion" published UK/Ireland
1818 Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Ozymandias" published UK/Ireland
1818 The first steamship crosses the Atlantic in 26 days
1818, February 14 Frederick Douglass, American abolitionist, b. (d. 1895) United States
1818, May 5 Karl Marx, German author and philosopher, b. (d. 1883) Europe
1818, July 30 Emily Bronte, British novelist, b. (d. 1848) UK/Ireland
1818, November 9 Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, Russian novelist, b. (d. 1883) Russia/USSR
1819 "Peterloo Massacre" in England UK/Ireland
1819 Percy Bysshe Shelley's "The Cenci" published UK/Ireland
1819 Florida purchased by the US United States
1819 Maximum work day for juveniles in England established as 12 hours UK/Ireland
1819 Emma Willard addresses the United States legislature on education for women United States
1819, February 8 John Ruskin, English author, art and social critic, b. (d. 1900) UK/Ireland
1819, February 8 John Ruskin, British writer and art critic, b. (d. 1900) UK/Ireland
1819, May 24 Birth of future Queen Victoria b. (d. 1901) UK/Ireland
1819, May 31 Walt Whitman, American poet, b. (d. 1892) United States
1819, August 1 Herman Melville, American novelist, b. (d. 1892) United States
1819, November 22 George Eliot nee Mary Ann Evans, b. (d. 1880) UK/Ireland
1820 Gothic Literature movement declines (1764 -- 1820) Worldwide
1820 John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale" published UK/Ireland
1820 Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound" published UK/Ireland
1820 Missouri Compromise United States
1820, January 17 Anne Bronte, British novelist, b. (d. 1849) UK/Ireland
1820, February 15 Susan B. Anthony, American suffragette and civil rights leader, b. (d. 1906) United States
1820, May 12 Florence Nightingale, English Nurse and author, b. (d. 1910) UK/Ireland
1820, November 28 Friedrich Engels, German socialist and philosopher, partner and friend of Karl Marx, b. (d. 1895) Europe
1821 Fyodor Dostoevsky, Russian novelist, b. (d. 1881) Russia/USSR
1821 Thomas de Quincey's "Confessions of an English Opium Eater" published UK/Ireland
1821 Percy Bysshe Shelley's "Adonais" published UK/Ireland
1821, February 23 John Keats, British poet in the English romantic movement, d. (b. 1795) UK/Ireland
1821, April 9 Charles Pierre Baudelaire, French poet and critic, b. (d. 1867) Europe
1821, December 12 Gustave Flaubert, French author of "Madame Bovary" b. (d. 1880) Europe
1822 Turks invade Greece Europe
1822 "Bottle Riots" in Dublin UK/Ireland
1822 London "Sunday Times" founded UK/Ireland
1822, July 8 Percy Bysshe Shelley, British poet, d. (b. 1792) UK/Ireland
1822, July 22 Gregor Johann Mendel, founding father of genetics, b. (d. 1884) Australia/New Zealand
1822, December 24 Matthew Arnold, British author and cultural critic, b. (d. 1888) UK/Ireland
1823 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's "Valperga" published UK/Ireland
1823 British medical journal "The Lancet" first issue launched UK/Ireland
1823 President issues Monroe Doctrine closing America to colonial settlements by European powers United States
1823, February 7 Ann Radcliffe, British Gothic novelist, d. (b. 1764) UK/Ireland
1823, July 23 Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore, British poet, b. (d. 1880) UK/Ireland
1824 Repeal of the Combinations Law of 1799-1800 allows British workers to unionize UK/Ireland
1824 Pawtucket, Rhode Island: first known strike of women factory workers United States
1824 Prevost and Dumas prove the sperm is essential to fertilization
1824, January 8 Wilkie Collins, British dramatist b. (d. 1889) UK/Ireland
1824, April 19 Lord George Gordon Byron, British romantic poet, d. (b. 1788) UK/Ireland
1825 Thomas Henry Huxley, British essayist and biologist, b. (d. 1895) UK/Ireland
1825 Samuel Pepys' "Diary" published UK/Ireland
1825 French law makes sacrilege a capital offense Europe
1825 First passenger railroad opened in England UK/Ireland
1825, October 26 Erie Canal running between Hudson River and Lake Erie, the first canal connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean completed in America United States
1826 James Fenimore Cooper's "The Last of the Mohicans" published United States
1826 Cholera outbreak in India, spreads to Europe by 1831 Europe
1826 Aleksandr Pushkin's "Stanzas" published Russia/USSR
1826, April 26 Russia declares war on Persia Russia/USSR
1826, July 4 Thomas Jefferson, U.S. president, d. (b. 1743) United States
1827 James Simpson creates filter for purifying London's water supply UK/Ireland
1827 Russia defeats Persia and takes Armenia Russia/USSR
1827 First photographs developed on metal plates Europe
1827, August 12 William Blake, British poet and artist, d. (b. 1757) UK/Ireland
1828 Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Fanshawe" published United States
1828 Universal Male White Suffrage passed in United States United States
1828 Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language" published United States
1828, February 8 Jules Gabriel Verne, French author, b. (d. 1905) Europe
1828, May 12 Dante Gabriel Rossetti, English poet and artist, b. (d. 1882) UK/Ireland
1828, September 9 Count Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Russian novelist, b. (d. 1910) Russia/USSR
1829 Peace of Adrianople ends Russo-Turk war Russia/USSR
1829 Slavery abolished in Mexico Mexico/Central & South America
1829, January 15 Silas Weir Mitchell, American Physician, novelist and short story writer, b. (d. 1914) United States
1829, December 4 Suttee, the Indian custom of burning a window along with her husband, is abolished in British India Asia
1830 Tennyson's "Poems, Chiefly Lyrical," published UK/Ireland
1830 Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt, French novelist and diarist b. (d. 1870) Europe
1830 Founding of Royal Geographic Society, London UK/Ireland
1830 The Mormons also called the Later Day Saints founded by Joseph Smith United States
1830 Belva Lockwood, American, first woman to practice before the Supreme Court and nominated for presidency United States
1830 The Underground Railroad reaches its peak (1830 -- 1865) United States
1830, May 26 The Indian Removal Act passed by the U.S. Congress United States
1830, July 28 French Revolution Europe
1830, December 5 Christina Rossetti, English poet and author of "Goblin Market," b. (d. 1894) UK/Ireland
1830, December 10 Emily Dickinson, American poet, b. (d. 1886) United States
1831 Cholera pandemic spreads from Russia into Central Europe Worldwide
1831 Pushkin's "Mozart and Salieri" published Russia/USSR
1831 Southampton slave revolt led by Nat Turner crushed in Virginia United States
1831, November 11 Nat Turner, tried, convicted, and sentenced to death, d. (b. 1800) United States
1831, November 14 Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, also known as Friedrich Hegel, German philosopher d. (b. 1770) Europe
1832 Romantic movement in literature (1798 -- 1832) UK/Ireland
1832 Tennyson's "Locksley Hall" published UK/Ireland
1832 Goethe's "Faust, Part II" published Europe
1832 Tennyson's "The Lotos Eaters" published UK/Ireland
1832 Tennyson's "The Lady of Shalott" published UK/Ireland
1832 Reform Act passes in the U.K restricting voting rights and enfranchising the upper-middle class UK/Ireland
1832, January 13 Horatio Alger, American author of books for boys (the Dime novels), b. (d. 1899) United States
1832, January 27 Charles Lutwidge Dodgson known famously by the pen name Lewis Carroll b. (d. 1898) UK/Ireland
1832, March 22 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German poet, d. (b. 1749) Europe
1832, September 21 Walter Scott, Scottish novelist, d. (b. 1771) UK/Ireland
1832, September 21 Sir Leslie Stephen, British critic and cultural historian, b. (d. 1903) UK/Ireland
1832, November 29 Louisa May Alcott, American author of "Little Women," b. (d. 1888) United States
1833 Slavery Abolished throughout the British Empire (1833 -- 1834) UK/Ireland
1833 Thomas Carlyle's "Sartor Resartus" published UK/Ireland
1833 First Child labor law, the "Factory law" passed in England UK/Ireland
1833, May 10 Pedro Antonio de Alarcn y Ariza, Spanish writer, b. (d. 1891) Europe
1834 Poor Law Amendment Act in Great Britain provides that no able bodied man can receive assistance until he enters a workhouse UK/Ireland
1834, March 24 William Morris, British poet and fiction writer, b. (d. 1896) UK/Ireland
1834, July 25 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, nineteenth century English poet, d. (b. 1772) UK/Ireland
1834, July 27 Charles Lamb, English essayist, best known for his "Essays of Elia," d. (b. 1775) UK/Ireland
1835 Davy Crockett, American politician, killed at the Alamo (b. 1786) United States
1835 Hans Christian Andersen's first four tales (out of 168) for children published Europe
1835 Nikoli Gogol's "Diary of a Madman" published Russia/USSR
1835 P. T. Barnum begins his career by exhibiting Black woman Joyce Heth United States
1835 Second Seminole War (1835 -- 1842) United States
1835, November 30 Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens), American author of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," b. (d. 1910) United States
1836 Birth of the American Transcendentalist movement (1836 -- 1840's) United States
1836 People's charter working-class movement in Great Britain demands universal suffrage UK/Ireland
1836 Daily average earnings for women 37 cents United States
1836 Carlyle's poem "Sartor Resartus" published UK/Ireland
1836, April 7 William Godwin, English novelist, philosopher and father of Mary Shelley (author of "Frankenstein"), d. (b. 1756) UK/Ireland
1836, August 25 Francis Bret Harte, American author and poet, b. (d. 1902) United States
1837 Thomas Carlyle's "The French Revolution" published UK/Ireland
1837 Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Twice Told Tales" published United States
1837 First Canadian Railroad Canada
1837 America suffers financial and economic panic United States
1837, January 29 Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin, Russian poet and founder of modern Russian literature, d. (b. 1799) Russia/USSR
1837, March 1 William Dean Howells, American realist author, novelist and critic, b. (d. 1920) United States
1837, April 5 Algernon Charles Swinburne, Victorian Era English poet, b. (d. 1909) UK/Ireland
1837, April 17 John Pierpont Morgan, Sr., American financier and banker, b. (d. 1913) United States
1837, June 20 Victoria (1819 --1901) becomes Queen of Great Britain at age 18; Victorian Age of literature begins, (ends 1907) UK/Ireland
1838 Elizabeth Barrett Browning's "The Seraphim and Other Poems" published UK/Ireland
1838 First British-Afghan War (1838 -- 1842) UK/Ireland
1838 Anti-Corn law League established in Manchester UK/Ireland
1838 Edgar Allan Poe's "Ligeia" published United States
1838, June 28 Coronation of Queen Victoria UK/Ireland
1839 Outbreak of the First opium War between Britain and China (1839 -- 1842) Worldwide
1839 Edgar Allan Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher" published United States
1839 Charles Goodyear (1800-1860) discovers the process of vulcanization United States
1839 George W. Weed's anti-slavery pamphlet "Slavery as it Is" published United States
1839, March 16 Sully Prudhomme (Ren-Franois-Armand Prudhomme), French poet and essayist, b. (d. 1907)
1839, July 8 John Davison Rockefeller, American capitalist and a great philanthropist, b. (d. 1937) United States
1839, August 4 Walter Horatio Pater, English critic and essayist, b. (d. 1894) UK/Ireland
1839, November 29 Major Polish insurrection begins in Warsaw against Russian Rule Russia/USSR
1840 Queen Victoria marries her cousin Prince Albert von Saksen-Coburg UK/Ireland
1840 Literacy of women in the United States doubles (1780 -- 1840) United States
1840 Edgar Allan Poe's "Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque" published United States
1840 Kew Gardens, later known as the Royal Botanical gardens, opened in London, UK UK/Ireland
1840, January 6 Frances Burney, later known as Madame D'Arblay, British novelist, d. (b. 1752) UK/Ireland
1840, April 2 Emile Zola, French novelist, b. (d. 1902) Europe
1840, May 13 Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, b. (d. 1897) Europe
1840, June 2 Thomas Hardy, British novelist, author of "Tess of the d'Urbervilles," b. (d. 1928) UK/Ireland
1841 The First University degrees granted to women in America United States
1841 Barnum's "American Museum" freak exhibition opens in New York City United States
1841 Edgar Allan Poe's "Murders in the Rue Morgue," one of the first detective stories written, is published United States
1841 Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes "Essays" United States
1841 Robert Browning's "Pippa Passes" published UK/Ireland
1841 "Punch," humorous London periodical, begins to appear UK/Ireland
1841 Sir Henry M. Stanley, English journalist and African explorer, b. (d. 1904) UK/Ireland
1841 Scottish surgeon James Braid (1795-1860) discovers hypnosis UK/Ireland
1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty between Great Britain and the United States defines the Canadian frontier Worldwide
1842 Tennyson's "Locksley Hall" published UK/Ireland
1842 Tennyson's "Morte d'Arthur" published UK/Ireland
1842 Edgar Allan Poe's "The Masque of the Red Death" published United States
1842 Treaty of Nanking ends the Opium War between Britain and China Worldwide
1842 Gogol's "Dead Souls" published Russia/USSR
1842, March 18 Stephane Mallarme, major French symbolist Poet, b. (d. 1898) Europe
1842, March 23 Marie-Henri Beyle known by pen name "Stendhal", French novelist and essayist, d. (b. 1784) Europe
1842, June 21 Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce, American author of "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge," b. (d. 1914) United States
1842, July 28 Clemens Brentano or Klemens Brentano, German poet and Novelist, d. (b. 1778) Europe
1843 Military revolt in Spain, Isabella II declared Queen Europe
1843 John Ruskin's "Modern Painters" vol. 1 published UK/Ireland
1843 U.S. Congress awards S. F. B. Morse $30,000 to build the first telegraph line United States
1843 Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart" published United States
1843 Charles Dickens' "A Christmas Carol" published UK/Ireland
1843 Edgar Allan Poe's "The Pit and the Pendulum" published United States
1843, April 15 Henry James, Anglo-American novelist best known for novels and novellas based upon themes of consciousness, b. (d. 1916) UK/Ireland
1844 Elizabeth Barrett Browning's "Poems" published UK/Ireland
1844 Treaty of Tangier ends French war in Morocco UK/Ireland
1844 Alexander Dumas' "The Count of Monte Cristo" published Europe
1844 Alexander Dumas' "The Three Mustakeers" published Europe
1844 Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Rappacini's Daughter" published United States
1844, March 31 Andrew Lang, Scottish poet, novelist, and literary critic, b. (d. 1912) UK/Ireland
1844, July 28 Gerard Manley Hopkins, British Victorian poet and Jesuit priest, b. (d. 1889) UK/Ireland
1844, October 15 Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher and psychologist, b. (d. 1924) UK/Ireland
1845 Maori rise against British rule in New Zealand Worldwide
1845 Edgar Allan Poe's "The Purloined Letter" published United States
1845 Friedrich Engels' "The Condition of the Working Class in England" published UK/Ireland
1845 Revolts break out in Poland Europe
1845 First Anglo-Sikh war begins as a protest to the British East India company rule (1845 -- 1846) Worldwide
1846 Treaty of Lahore ends the first Sikh War; the treaty gave the "Kohinoor" diamond to Queen Victoria Worldwide
1846 Melville's "Typee" published United States
1846 American troops defeat Mexicans at Palo Alto followed by formal declaration of war and annexation of New Mexico United States
1846 Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of Amontillado" published United States
1845 Poe's "The Raven and Other Poems" published United States
1846 Irish Famine caused by failure of potato crop UK/Ireland
1847 Charlotte Bronte's "Jane Eyre" published UK/Ireland
1847 Emily Bronte's "Wuthering Heights" published UK/Ireland
1847 William Makepeace Thackeray's "Vanity Fair: A novel without a hero" published UK/Ireland
1847 British Factory Act restricts working day hours for women and children to 10 hours UK/Ireland
1847, November 8 Bram Stoker, Irish writer, author of "Dracula," b. (d. 1912) UK/Ireland
1848 Revolts in Paris; worker uprising Europe
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-U.S. war United States
1848 Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood forms UK/Ireland
1848 Second Sikh War begins
1848 Sardinia declares war on Austria Europe
1848 Revolutions in Venice, Berlin, Milan and Parma Worldwide
1848 Revolution in Vienna; Metternich resigns Europe
1848 Seneca Falls Declaration/ first Women's Rights convention United States
1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels issue the Communist Manifesto Europe
1848 Gold rush begins in California United States
1848 Maria Mitchell, astronomer, voted the first woman member of American Academy of Arts and Sciences United States
1848, December 19 Emily Jane Bronte, British novelist, d. (b. 1818) UK/Ireland
1849 Thomas Beddoes, British poet, author of "Song from the Ship,"d. (b. 1803) United States
1849 California Gold Rush United States
1849 Charlotte Bronte's "Shirley" published UK/Ireland
1849 Edgar Allan Poe's "Annabel Lee" published United States
1849 Charles Dickens' "David Copperfield" published UK/Ireland
1849, January 22 Johan August Strindberg, Swedish playwright and painter, b. (d. 1912) UK/Ireland
1849, January 23 Elizabeth Blackwell, first woman to practice medicine in the United States, receives her medical degree UK/Ireland
1849, March 29 British defeat Sikhs and annex Punjab to its list of captive states in India Worldwide
1849, May 22 Maria Edgeworth, Irish novelist, d. (b 1767) UK/Ireland
1849, May 28 Anne Bronte, British novelist d. (b. 1820) UK/Ireland
1849, October 7 Edgar Allan Poe, American author, d. (b. 1809) United States
1849, November 24 Frances Hodgson Burnett, English-born American writer of children's literature, b. (d. 1924) United States
c. 1850 Era of the Middle Passage route of slaves from Africa to America (1450 -- 1850) Africa
1850 William Wordsworth, British Poet Laureate, d. (b. 1770) UK/Ireland
1850 Hawthorne's "The Scarlet Letter" published United States
1850 Dante Gabriel Rossetti's "The Blessed Damozel" published UK/Ireland
1850 Elizabeth Barrett Browning's "Sonnets From the Portuguese" published UK/Ireland
1850 Tennyson's "In Memoriam A. H. H." published UK/Ireland
1850, February 8 Kate Chopin, American writer, author of "The Awakening" b. (d. 1904) United States
1850, June 19 Margaret Fuller, American transcendentalist and woman of letters, d. (b. 1810) United States
1850, August 5 Guy de Maupassant, French writer and father of modern short story, b. (d. 1893) Europe
1850, August 18 Honore de Balzac, French novelist, d. (b. 1799) Europe
1850, November 13 Robert Louis Stevenson, novelist, poet and travel writer, b. (d. 1894) UK/Ireland
1851 Hawthorne's "The House of Seven Gables" published United States
1851 Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin" United States
1851 Herman Melville's "Moby Dick" published United States
1851 John Ruskin's "The Stones of Venice" published UK/Ireland
1851 Great Crystal Palace Exhibition of arts and manufacturers in London UK/Ireland
1851 Isaac Singer invents the first continuous stitch sewing machine
1851 "The New York Times" appears United States
1851 Maine and Illinois begin to enforce prohibition against liquor United States
1851, February 1 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English novelist, d. (b. 1797) UK/Ireland
1851, September 14 James Fenimore Cooper, American novelist popular for sea stories as well as historical romances, d. (b. 1789) United States
1852 South African Republic (Transvaal) established Africa
1852 New French constitution gives President monarchical powers Europe
1852 Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Blithedale Romance" published United States
1852, February 25 Thomas Moore, Irish poet and novelist, d. (b. 1779) UK/Ireland
1852, March 4 Nikolai Vasilevich Gogol, Russian author of "The Overcoat," d. (b. 1809) Russia/USSR
1852, December 2 Napoleon III is declared as the Emperor of France Europe
1853 Turkey declares war on Russia after rejecting Russian ultimatum Worldwide
1853 Crimean War begins (1853 -- 1856) Worldwide
1853 Herman Melville's "Bartleby the Schrivener" published United States
1853 Matthew Arnold's "The Scholar Gypsy" published UK/Ireland
1853 Charlotte Bronte's "Villette" published UK/Ireland
1853 Henry David Thoreau's "Walden" published United States
1854 Charles Dickens' "Bleak House" published UK/Ireland
1854 Britain and France declare war on Russia Worldwide
1854 Coventry Patmore's "Angel in the House" published UK/Ireland
1854 Tennyson's "The Charge of the Light Brigade" published UK/Ireland
1854, October 16 Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde, Anglo-Irish Dramatist, author of "The Importance of Being Ernest" b. (d. 1900) UK/Ireland
1854, October 20 Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud, French poet, b. (d. 1891) Europe
1855 Charles Dickens' "Little Dorrit" published UK/Ireland
1855 Walt Whitman's "Leaves of Grass" published United States
1855 Robert Browning's "Fra Lippo Lippi" published UK/Ireland
1855 London sewers modernized after Cholera outbreak UK/Ireland
1855 Turgenev's "A Month in the Country" published Russia/USSR
1855, March 24 Olive Schreiner, South African novelist, author of "Story of an African Farm" b. (d. 1920) Africa
1855, March 31 Charlotte Bronte, British novelist, d. (b. 1816) UK/Ireland
1855, November 11 Soren Aabye Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, author of "The Concept of Dread," d. (b. 1813) UK/Ireland
1856 Crimean War ends (began 1853) Russia/USSR
1856 Flaubert's "Madame Bovary" published Europe
1856 Anglo-China War begins Worldwide
1856 Cocaine is extracted from Cocoa beans Worldwide
1856, February 17 Christian Johann Heinrich Heine, German poet, d. (b. 1797) Europe
1856, May 7 Sigmund Freud, Austrian founder of psychoanalysis, b. (d 1939) Europe
1856, June 22 Sir Henry Rider Haggard, British novelist, b. (d. 1925) UK/Ireland
1856, July 26 George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright, b. (d. 1950) UK/Ireland
1857 Peace of Paris end the Anglo-Persian War Worldwide
1857 Indian Mutiny or the First War of Indian Independence and the first-ever united rebellion against colonial rule in India Worldwide
1857 Elizabeth Barrett Browning's "Aurora Leigh" published UK/Ireland
1857 Charlotte Bronte's "The Professor" published UK/Ireland
1857 Charles Baudelaire's "Les Fleurs du mal" published Europe
1857 Anthony Trollope's "Barchester Towers" published UK/Ireland
1857 Dred Scott Vs. Sanford case United States
1857, December 3 Joseph Conrad, novelist, author of "Heart of Darkness," b. (d. 1924) UK/Ireland
1858 The Blessed Virgin Mary reputed to have appeared in Lourdes, France Europe
1858 Treaty of Tientsin sends Anglo-China War Worldwide
1859 France declares war on Austria, Austria defeated and armistice formalized by Treaty of Zurich Worldwide
1859 Charles Dickens' "A Tale of Two Cities" published UK/Ireland
1859 Tennyson's "Idylls of the King" published UK/Ireland
1859 Charles Darwin's "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection" published UK/Ireland
1859 George Eliot's "Adam Bede" published UK/Ireland
1859, March 26 Alfred Edward Housman, English Poet, b. (d. 1936) UK/Ireland
1859, May 22 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, British author and creator of famous detective Sherlock Holmes, b. (d. 1930) UK/Ireland
1859, November 28 Washington Irving, American author, d. (b. 1783) United States
1859, December 8 Thomas de Quincey, British author, d. (b. 1785) UK/Ireland
1859, December 16 Wilhelm Carl Grimm, German author, folklorist and Danish writer of children's stories, d. (b. 1786) Europe
1860 The Second Maori War begins (1860 -- 1970) Australia/New Zealand
1860 Walt Whitman's "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking" published United States
1860 Wilkie Collins' "The Woman in White" published UK/Ireland
1860 Turgenev's "On the Eve" published Russia/USSR
1860 George Eliot's "The Mill on the Floss" published UK/Ireland
1860 Christopher L. Sholes devises primitive form of typewriter United States
1860, January 29 Anton Pavlovich Chekhov, Russian playwright and author, b. (d. 1904) Russia/USSR
1861 Congress of Montgomery forms Confederate States of America and the Confederates take Fort Sumter United States
1861 Civil War in America United States
1861 Charles Dickens' "Great Expectations" published UK/Ireland
1861 George Eliot's "Silas Marner" published UK/Ireland
1861 Emancipation of Russian serfs Russia/USSR
1861 T. S. Mort builds first machine-chilled cold storage unit Australia/New Zealand
1861 U.S. introduces the passport system United States
1861, May 7 Rabindranath Tagore, poet, philosopher, nationalist, and Nobel Laureate, b. (d. 1941) Asia
1861, June 29 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, British poet, author of "The Seraphim and Other Poems," d. (b. 1806) UK/Ireland
1862 Victor Hugo's "Les Miserables" published Europe
1862 Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation effective Jan 1, 1863, in which all slaves held in rebelling territories declared free United States
1862, January 24 Edith Wharton, American novelist, author of "The House of Mirth" b. (d. 1937) United States
1862, May 6 Henry David Thoreau, American author, d. (b. 1817) United States
1862, September 20 Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm, German mythologist, folklorist, and compiler of "Grimm's Fairy Tales" along with brother Wilhelm, d. (b.1785) Europe
1863 Civil War breaks out in Afghanistan after the death of Dost Mohammed Middle East
1863 French capture Mexico City Worldwide
1863 Henry Ford, American automobile manufacturer, b. (d. 1947) United States
1863 Construction of the London Underground commences (1863 -- 1884) UK/Ireland
1863, November 19 Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address" delivered at dedication of a military cemetery United States
1863, December 24 William M. Thackeray, British novelist and satirist, d. (b. 1811) UK/Ireland
1864 Peace of Vienna in which Denmark cedes Schleswig, Holstein and Laurenburg to Austria and Prussia Worldwide
1864 General Sherman's army defeats Confederate Army at Atlanta United States
1864 Massacre of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado United States
1864 Confederate agents try to burn New York City by setting fire to the Barnum Museum and Astor House United States
1864 Tolstoy's "War and Peace" published Russia/USSR
1864 Geneva Convention establishes battlefield medical facilities neutral territory Worldwide
1864, May 19 Nathaniel Hawthorne, American novelist, author of "The Scarlet Letter," d. (b. 1804) United States
1865 Confederate Army formally surrenders at Appomattox, Civil War ends United States
1865 Thirteenth Amendment to the American Constitution abolishes slavery United States
1865 Gregor Mendel enunciates his "Law of Heredity" Europe
1865 Ku Klux Klan founded in Tennessee United States
1865 Explosion of the steamboat "Sultana" results in death of 1,700 returning Union veterans United States
1865, April 14 US President Abraham Lincoln assassinated United States
1865, June 13 William Butler Yeats, Irish Poet, b. (d. 1939) UK/Ireland
1865, July 4 Lewis Carroll's "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" published UK/Ireland
1865, November 12 Elizabeth Gaskell, British novelist, author of "North and South," d. (b. 1810) UK/Ireland
1865, December 30 Joseph Rudyard Kipling, British author of "The Jungle Books" b. (d. 1936) UK/Ireland
1866 Prussian-Italian alliance against Austria; secret treaty between Austria and France concerning French neutrality; end of the German confederation, Italy declares war on Austria; preliminary peace treaty between Prussia and Austria; Treaty of Vienna ends the Austro-Italian war Worldwide
1866 Dostoevsky's "Crime and Punishment" published Russia/USSR
1866 Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer, invents dynamite United States
1866 Robert Whitehead invents underwater torpedo United States
1866 "Black Friday" on London stock exchange UK/Ireland
1866, September 21 Herbert George Wells, English author of "The Time Machine" b. (d. 1946) UK/Ireland
1867 Fenian outrages in Ireland and Manchester UK/Ireland
1867 British Parliamentary Reform Act UK/Ireland
1867 Mark Twain's "The Jumping Frog of Calveras County" published United States
1867 Marx's "Das Capital" published Europe
1867 Gold discovered in Wyoming United States
1867, April 9 Russia sells Alaska to the United States for 7,200,000 Worldwide
1867, May 27 Arnold Bennet, British author, b. (d. 1931) UK/Ireland
1867, August 14 John Galsworthy, British author, b. (d. 1933) UK/Ireland
1867, August 31 Charles Baudelaire, French author, d. (b. 1821) Europe
1868 Shogun Kekei of Japan abdicates and the shogunate is abolishes as the Meiji dynasty is restored Asia
1868 Revolution in Spain; Queen Isabella II deposed Europe
1868 14th Amendment to the U.S. constitution protects the individual's rights against infringement by state governments United States
1868 Louisa May Alcott's "Little Women" published United States
1868 Wilkie Collins' "The Moonstone" published UK/Ireland
1868 Dostoevsky's "The Idiot" published Russia/USSR
1868 Skeleton of Cro-Magnon man found in France Europe
1868, February 23 W. E. B. Du Bois or William Edward Burghardt DuBois, African American civil rights leader and author, b. (d. 1963) United States
1869 National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago United States
1869 Opening of the Suez canal Europe
1869 Bret Harte's "The Outcasts of Poker Flat" published United States
1869 Francis Galton's "Hereditary Genius," the pioneering work on eugenics, published UK/Ireland
1869, October 2 Mahatma Gandhi, Indian nationalist and Freedom Fighter, b. (d. 1948) Asia
1870 Franco-Prussian War in which France declares war on Prussia; after three major defeats, Napoleon III capitulates at Sedan Worldwide
1870 Revolt in Paris and proclamation of the Third Republic; siege of Paris by Prussians begins Europe
1870 Jules Verne's "Twenty Thousand leagues Under the Sea" published Europe
1870 T. H. Huxley's "Theory of Biogenesis" published United States
1870 John D. Rockefeller's "Standard Oil Company" founded United States
1870 "Dictionary of American Biography" issued for the first time United States
1870, April 22 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Russian Communist leader, b. (d. 1924) Russia/USSR
1870, June 9 Charles John Huffam Dickens, British novelist, author of "Bleak House," d. (b. 1812) UK/Ireland
1870, July 27 Hilaire Belloc, also known as Joseph Hilaire Pierre Ren Belloc, author of "The Path to Rome," b. (d. 1953) UK/Ireland
1870, October 12 Robert Edward Lee, American Confederate General, d. (b. 1807) United States
1870, December 5 Alexandre Dumas, French novelist, d. (b. 1802) Europe
1871 Preliminary peace between Germany and France followed by Peace of Frankfurt Worldwide
1871 The Commune in Paris rules for two months Europe
1871 Treaty of Washington resolves difficulties between Great Britain and the U.S. Worldwide
1871 Britain legalizes labor unions UK/Ireland
1871 Lewis Carroll's "Through the Looking Glass" published UK/Ireland
1871 George Eliot's "Middlemarch" published UK/Ireland
1871 Unification of Germany Europe
1871 Charles Darwin's "The Descent of Man" published UK/Ireland
1871 The Great Fire in Chicago United States
1871, July 10 Marcel Proust, French novelist, author of "In search of lost time," b. (d. 1922) Europe
1871, November 1 Stephen Crane, American author of "The Red Badge of Courage," b. (d. 1900) United States
1872 Civil War in Spain Europe
1872 Jules Verne's "Around the World in Eighty Days" published Europe
1873 Abolition of the slave markets and exports in Zanzibar Africa
1873, February 7 Joseph Sheridan le Fanu, Irish novelist, author of short story "The House by the Churchyard," d. (b. 1814) UK/Ireland
1873, May 8 John Stuart Mill, British philosopher, d. (b. 1806) UK/Ireland
1873, December 17 Ford Madox Ford, British author and publisher, b. (d. 1939) UK/Ireland
1873 Tolstoy's "Anna Karenina" published Russia/USSR
1874 Thomas Hardy's "Far From the Madding Crowd" published UK/Ireland
1874 First Impressionist exhibition in Paris; impressionism derived from Monet painting "Impression: Sunrise" Europe
1874, January 25 William Somerset Maugham, British author of masterpiece "Of Human Bondage," b. (d. 1965) UK/Ireland
1874, February 3 Gertrude Stein, American Poet, b. (d. 1946) United States
1874, March 26 Robert Lee Frost, American poet, b. (d. 1963) United States
1874, November 14 Benjamin Disraeli, novelist and conservative, becomes England's first and only Jewish Prime Minister (1974 -- 1880) UK/Ireland
1875 Rebellion in Cuba Mexico/Central & South America
1875 Mark Twain's "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" published United States
1875 Medical School for Women founded in London UK/Ireland
1875 London's main sewage system is complete UK/Ireland
1875, August 4 Hans Christian Andersen, Danish author of stories for children, d. (b. 1805) Europe
1875, December 4 Rainer Maria Rilke, German modernist poet, b. (d. 1926) Europe
1876, January 12 Jack London, American novelist, b. (d. 1916) United States
1876, June 8 George Sand, pen name of Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, later Baroness Dudevant, French writer, author of novel "Consuelo," d. (b. 1804) Europe
1877 Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India UK/Ireland
1877 Ninth Kaffir War or the Cape Frontier War (1877 -- 1878) Africa
1877 Russia declares war on Turkey; Serbia declares war on Turkey Worldwide
1877 Satsuma Revolt in Japan suppressed Asia
1877 Henry James' "The American" published UK/Ireland
1877 Thomas Alva Edison invents the phonograph United States
1877 Famine in Northern China leaves 10 million dead (1877 -- 1879) Asia
1877 Famine in Bengal, India Asia
1877, July 2 Hermann Hesse, German novelist, author of "Siddhartha," and winner of Nobel Prize in 1946, b. (d. 1962) Europe
1878 Turkish-Russian Armistice signed Worldwide
1878 Thomas Hardy's "The Return of the Native" published UK/Ireland
1878 Electric street lighting introduced in London UK/Ireland
1878 Paris World Exhibition Europe
1878, January 6 Carl August Sandburg, American historian and poet, b. (d. 1967) United States
1878, February 2 Greece declares war on Turkey Worldwide
1878, April 21 Pope Leo XIII publishes "Encyclical Inscrutabili" Europe
1878, September 20 Upton Beall Sinclair, American author and reformer, b. (d. 1968) United States
1878, November 6 Henrik Ibsen's "Samfundets Stotter," premieres in Oslo Europe
1879 Henrick Ibsen's "A Doll's House" published Europe
1879 Henry James' "Daisy Miller" published United States
1879, January 1 Edward Morgan Forster, British novelist, b. (d. 1970) UK/Ireland
1879, March 14 Albert Einstein, b. (d. 1955) Europe
1879, September 14 Margaret Higgins Sanger, opened first Birth Control Clinic in America b. (d. 1966). UK/Ireland
1879, November 7 Leon Davidovich Trotsky, Russian Communist leader, b. (d. 1940) Russia/USSR
1879, December 21 Joseph Stalin, Russian Communist dictator, b. (d. 1953) Europe
1880 George Eliot, pseudonym for Mary Ann Cross, also Marian Evans, original surname Evans, author of "MiddleMarch," d. (b. 1819) UK/Ireland
1880 Fyodor Dostoevsky's "The Brothers Karamazov" published Russia/USSR
1880 Zola's "Nana" published Europe
1880, March 30 Sean O'Casey, Irish dramatist, b. (d. 1964) UK/Ireland
1880, May 8 Gustave Flaubert, French author of "Madame Bovary" d. (b. 1821) Europe
1881 Charles Stewart Parnell, Irish Nationalist, imprisoned for the Home Rule movement in Ireland UK/Ireland
1881 Henry James' "Portrait of a Lady" published UK/Ireland
1881, February 5 Thomas Carlyle, Scottish historian and writer, d. (b. 1795) UK/Ireland
1881, February 9 Fyodor Dostoevsky, Russian novelist, journalist and short-story writer d. (b. 1821) Russia/USSR
1882 Fenians murder Lord Frederick Cavendish and T. H. Burke in Dublin; terrorist massacres in Maamtrasne UK/Ireland
1882 United States bans Chinese immigrants for ten years United States
1882 Robert Louis Stevenson's "Treasure Island" published UK/Ireland
1882 Joseph Breuer uses hypnosis to treat hysteria, marking the beginnings of psychoanalysis Europe
1882, January 25 Virginia Woolf, British author, b. (d. 1941) UK/Ireland
1882, February 2 James Augustine Aloysius Joyce, Irish novelist, b. (d. 1941) UK/Ireland
1882, March 24 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, American author, d. (b. 1807) United States
1882, April 10 Dante Gabriel Rossetti d. (b. 1828) United States
1882, April 19 Charles Darwin, author of "The Origin of Species" d. (b. 1809) UK/Ireland
1882, April 27 Ralph Waldo Emerson, American philosopher, author of the essay "Self-Reliance,"d. (b. 1803) UK/Ireland
1882, April 27 Jessie Redmon Fauset, African American author and editor, b. (d. 1961) United States
1882, December 6 Anthony Trollope, author of "Barsetshire Chronicles", d. (b. 1815) UK/Ireland
1883 Sojourner Truth, original name Isabella Bomefree, born as American slave, abolitionist, d. (b. 1797) United States
1883 Olive Schreiner's "Story of an African Farm" published Africa
1883 First skyscraper built in Chicago; ten stories high United States
1883 Brooklyn Bridge opened United States
1883 Nietzsche's "Thus Spake Zarathustra" published Europe
1883, March 14 Karl Marx, German philosopher and revolutionary, d. (b. 1818) Europe
1883, July 3 Franz Kafka, Austrian novelist, b. (d. 1924) Europe
1883, September 3 Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev, Russian novelist, writer of "Fathers and Sons," d. (b. 1818) Russia/USSR
1883, September 17 William Carlos Williams, American Pulitzer Prize winning modernist poet, b. (d. 1963) United States
1884 Berlin Conference of 14 nations on African affairs Worldwide
1884 Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn" published United States
1884 Daudet's "Sappho" published Europe
1884 Oxford English Dictionary begins publication UK/Ireland
1884, May 27 Max Brod, German-Jewish novelist, playwright, poet and critic, b. (d. 1968) Europe
1885 The Congo becomes a possession of King Leopold II of Belgium Africa
1885 Richard Burton's "The Arabian Nights" published UK/Ireland
1885 H. Rider Haggard's "King Solomon's Mines" published UK/Ireland
1885, February 7 Sinclair Lewis, American novelist, b. (d. 1951) United States
1885, May 22 Victor-Marie Hugo, author of "Les Miserables" d. (b. 1802) Europe
1885, September 11 D. H. Lawrence, British author of "The Rainbow" b. (d. 1930) UK/Ireland
1885, October 30 Ezra Weston Loomis Pound, American expatriate poet, b. (d. 1972) United States
1886 R. L. Stevenson's "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" published UK/Ireland
1886 Henry James' "The Bostonians" published UK/Ireland
1886, September 10 Hilda Doolittle, American novelist and poet, b. (d. 1961) United States
1887 Queen Victoria celebrates her Golden Jubilee UK/Ireland
1887, November 15 Marianne Moore, American poet, b. (d. 1972) United States
1888 T. S. Eliot, Anglo-American poet and 1948 Nobel Prize winner, b. (d. 1965) United States
1888 Eugene O'Neill, American dramatist, b. (d. 1953) United States
1888 Jack the Ripper murders six women in London UK/Ireland
1888, April 15 Matthew Arnold, British author d. (b. 1822) UK/Ireland
1888, October 14 Katherine Mansfield, New Zealand born British author, b. (d. 1923) UK/Ireland
1889, April 20 Adolf Hitler, Nazi dictator, b. (d. 1945) Europe
1889, September 23 Wilkie Collins, British dramatist d. (b. 1824) UK/Ireland
1889, December 12 Robert Browning, British author, d. (b. 1812) UK/Ireland
1890 Boris Pasternak, Russian tragic novelist, author of "Dr. Zhivago," b. (d. 1960) Russia/USSR
1890 First moving picture (film) shows appear in New York United States
1890 Oscar Wilde's "The Picture of Dorian Gray" published UK/Ireland
1890 Sir James Frazer's "The Golden Bough" published UK/Ireland
1890 Global influenza epidemics Worldwide
1890 Ibsen's "Hedda Gabler" published Europe
1890, July 29 Vincent Van Gogh, Dutch painter and artist, d. (b. 1853) Europe
1890, August 11 John Henry Cardinal Newman, English essayist and Catholic cardinal, author of "Idea of a University," d. (b. 1801) UK/Ireland
1891 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes" published UK/Ireland
1891 Widespread famine in Russia Russia/USSR
1891 Thomas Hardy's "Tess of the D'Urbervilles" published UK/Ireland
1891, September 15 Agatha Christie, English mystery novelist, b. (d. 1976) UK/Ireland
1891, September 28 Herman Melville, American novelist and author of "Moby Dick," d. (b. 1819) United States
1891, November 10 Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud, French poet, d. (b. 1854) Europe
1891, December 26 Henry Miller, American novelist, b. (d. 1980) United States
1892, March 26 Walt Whitman, American poet, d. (b. 1819) United States
1892, May 7 Archibald MacLeish, American Modernist poet, and three time Pulitzer Prize winner, b. (d. 1982) United States
1892, June 26 Pearl S. Buck, author of "The Good Earth," b. (d. 1973) United States
1892, October 6 Alfred, Lord Tennyson, British Poet, author of "In Memoriam" d. (b. 1809) UK/Ireland
1893 Independent Labour Party formed in Britain UK/Ireland
1893 World Exhibition in Chicago United States
1893, July 6 Guy de Maupassant, French author, d. (b. 1850) Europe
1894 Japanese troops in Seoul; Korea and Japan declare war on China Asia
1894 Anthony Hope's "The Prisoner of Zenda" published UK/Ireland
1894 Kipling's "Kim" published UK/Ireland
1894, July 26 Aldous Huxley, British author, b. (d. 1963) UK/Ireland
1894, October 8 Oliver Wendell Holmes, American author of the poem "Old Ironsides," d. (b. 1809) United States
1894, October 14 E. E. Cummings, American poet and playwright, b. (d. 1962) United States
1894, December 3 Robert Louis Stevenson d. (b. 1850) UK/Ireland
1894, December 8 James Grover Thurber, American author, b. (d. 1961) United States
1894, December 29 Christina Rossetti, British poet, author of "Goblin Market" d. (b. 1830) UK/Ireland
1894, December 31 Susan Augusta Fenimore Cooper, author of "Rural Hours," d. (b. 1813) United States
1895 H. G. Wells' "The Time Machine" published UK/Ireland
1895 Chinese defeated by Japanese; end of war Asia
1895, February 20 Frederick Douglass, American abolitionist, d. (b. 1818) United States
1895, August 5 Friedrich Engels, German socialist, d. (b. 1820) Europe
1895, September 28 Louis Pasteur, d. (b. 1822) Europe
1896, January 14 John Dos Passos, American novelist and artist, b. (b. 1970) United States
1896, July 1 Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," d. (b. 1811) United States
1896, October 3 William Morris, British poet and socialist, d. (b. 1834) UK/Ireland
1896, December 10 Alfred Nobel, founder father of the Nobel Prizes, d. (b. 1933) Europe
1897 Joseph Conrad's "The Nigger of the Narcissus" published Europe
1897 H. G. Wells' "The Invisible Man" published UK/Ireland
1897 Havelock Ellis' "Studies in the Psychology of Sex" published UK/Ireland
1897 Severe famine in India Asia
1897 Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee as Queen of England UK/Ireland
1897, April 17 Thornton Wilder, American novelist and dramatist, b. (d. 1975) United States
1897, September 25 William Faulkner, American Nobel and Pulitzer Prize winning author, b. (d. 1962) United States
1897, December 17 Alphonse Daudet, French novelist, d. (b. 1840) Europe
1898 U.S. declares war on Spain over Cuba Worldwide
1898 Henry James' "The Turn of the Screw" published UK/Ireland
1898 H. G. Wells' "The War of the Worlds" published UK/Ireland
1898 Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium & polonium Europe
1898, January 14 Lewis Carroll, British author of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" d. (b. 1832) UK/Ireland
1898, February 10 Bertolt Brecht, German writer, b. (d. 1956) Europe
1898, November 29 C. S. Lewis, British novelist, author of "The Chronicles of Narnia" series, b. (d. 1963) UK/Ireland
1899 Oscar Wilde's "The Importance of Being Earnest" published UK/Ireland
1899, April 22 Vladimir Nabokov, Russian novelist, b. (d. 1977) Russia/USSR
1899, June 5 Fredercio Garcia Lorca, Spanish author, b. (d. 1936) Europe
1899, July 11 E(Elwyn). B(Brooks). White, American essayist, literary stylist, author of "Charlotte's Web," b. (d. 1985) United States
1899, July 18 Horatio Alger, the famous Dime novelist, d. (b. 1832) United States
1899, July 21 Ernest Hemingway, American author of "The Sun Also Rises," b. (d. 1961) United States
1899, December 16 Sir Noel Pierce Coward, British author, b. (d. 1962) UK/Ireland

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