363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90,000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a campaign which will bring about his own death.
1046 - Naser Khosrow begins the seven-year Middle Eastern journey which he will later describe in his book Safarnama.
1496 - England King Henry VII issues letters patent to John Cabot and his sons, authorizing them to explore unknown lands.
1689 - Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of Nottingham is named Secretary of State for the Northern Department.
1766 - Antonio de Ulloa, the first Spanish governor of Louisiana, arrives in New Orleans.
1770 - Boston Massacre: Five Americans, including a black man named Crispus Attucks, and a boy are killed by British troops in an event that would contribute to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War five years later.
1784 - Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney is named President of the Board of Trade.
1793 - French troops are defeated by Austrian forces and Liège is recaptured.
1824 - First Burmese War: The British officially declare war on Burma.
1836 - Samuel Colt makes the first production-model revolver (.34-caliber).
1842 - Over 500 Mexican troops led by Rafael Vasquez invade Texas, briefly occupy San Antonio and then head back to the Rio Grande.
1848 - Louis Antoine Garnier-Pages is named French minister of Finance.
1850 - The Britannia Bridge across the Menai Strait between the Isle of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales is opened.
1860 - Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna vote in referendums to join Kingdom of Sardinia.
1861 - The "Stars and Bars" is adopted as the flag of the Confederate States of America.
1868 - A court of impeachment is organized in the United States Senate to hear charges against President Andrew Johnson.
1868 - Mefistofele, an opera by Arrigo Boito premieres at La Scala.
1872 - George Westinghouse patents the air brake.
1894 - Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery becomes First Lord of the Treasury.
1904 - Nikola Tesla, in Electrical World and Engineer, describes the process of ball lightning formation.
1905 - Russian troops begin to retreat from Mukden, Manchuria after losing 100,000 troops in three days.
1907 - The second Duma opens in St. Petersburg, Russia and 40,000 demonstrators have to be dispersed by Russian troops.
1912 - Italian forces are the first to use airships for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance behind Turkish lines.
1915 - World War I: LZ 33, a zeppelin, is damaged by enemy fire and stranded south of Ostend.
1916 - Spanish football club Real Club Deportivo Mallorca is founded.
1918 - Bolshevist Russia moves the national capital from Petrograd to Moscow.
1933 - Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt declares a "bank holiday", closing all United States banks and freezing all financial transactions.
1933 - In Germany, the Nazis win 44 percent of the vote in parliamentary elections.
1936 - First flight of the Supermarine Spitfire fighter aircraft.
1940 - Members of Soviet politburo sign an order for the execution of 25,700 Polish intelligentsia, including 14,700 Polish POWs, known also as the Katyn massacre.
1943 - First flight of Gloster Meteor jet aircraft in the United Kingdom.
1945 - World War II: "Battle of the Ruhr" begins.
1946 - Winston Churchill uses the phrase "Iron Curtain" in his speech at Westminster College, Missouri.
1946 - Hungarian Communists and Social Democrats co-found the Left Bloc.
1949 - The Jharkhand Party is founded in India.
1958 - Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is established.
1958 - Explorer 2 spacecraft launches, fails to reach Earth orbit.
1960 - Aquatic Ape Hypothesis originates when Alister Hardy publicly announces his idea that ape-human divergence may have been due to a coastal phase.
1964 - Ceylon declares emergency crisis due to unrest.
1966 - BOAC Flight 911 crashes on Mount Fuji, Japan, killing 124.
1966 - In Luxembourg, Udo Jürgens wins the eleventh Eurovision Song Contest for Austria.
1968 - U.S. launches Solar Explorer B, aka Explorer 37 from Wallops Island to study the Sun.
1970 - The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty goes into effect after ratification by 43 nations.
1970 - Dubnium atoms are first detected conclusively.
1973 - Donald DeFreeze, future Symbionese Liberation Army leader, escapes from Vacaville Prison.
1974 - Yom Kippur War: Israeli forces withdraw from the west bank of the Suez Canal.
1976 - British pound falls below $2 U.S. for the first time.
1978 - Landsat 3 is launched from Vandenberg AFB in California.
1979 - Detection equipment picks up a gamma ray burst originating from the Large Magellanic Cloud, leading to the discovery of soft gamma repeaters.
1979 - Voyager 1's closest approach to Jupiter, 172,000 miles.
1979 - Earth satellites record gamma rays from remnants of supernova N-49.
1982 - Venera 14, a Soviet satellite arrives at the planet Venus.
1988 - Constitution of Turks and Caicos Islands is restored and revised.
1991 - Iraq releases all Gulf War prisoners.
1998 - NASA announces that the Clementine probe orbiting the Moon has found enough water to support a human colony.
1999 - Paul Okalik is elected first Premier of Nunavut.
2001 - In Mecca, 35 Muslim pilgrims are crushed to death during the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
2001 - Santana High School shooting: A student shoots at other students at Santana High School in Santee, California, killing two and wounding thirteen.
2003 - In Haifa, 17 Israeli civilians are killed by a Hamas suicide bomb in the Haifa bus 37 massacre.
2005 - The Burkinabé Party for Democracy and Socialism holds its 1st National Convention