Thursday, January 31, 2008

Scientology Protest For February 10

A friend of mine is a reporter in Second Life and she received the following notecard from a very earnest man looking to publicize a planned February 10th protest of all things related to Scientology. He said that all attempts to publish information criticizing Scientology are taken down by lawyers, which is why my friend passed this on to me to read.

First is sort of an informational bit on who the protesters are:

CNN News Team
A very large group of people on the internet has declared a "war" on the Church of Scientology. They call themselves Anonymous. While many feel this group is a bunch of hackers, their manifesto displays them as a large group of people, some very computer literate and others not so much, that fight for the freedom of knowledge and information. Many other people have tried to uncover the truth about the Church of Scientology, but have failed. The Church sends out cease and desist orders to anyone who tries to bash their reputation. They have a history of uncovering secret details in people's lives, revealing secrets to the public in order to bash their critics, and straight up stalking all enemies. They have had a "fair game" policy on all critics. "Enemies of the church could be injured, tricked, sued, lied to or destroyed. Fair game." - L. Ron Hubbard (Creator of the Church and the religion.) This is a threat to the freedom of information and knowledge that Anonymous is fighting for.

Anonymous has nothing against the religion of Scientology, although they may poke fun at some of the more interesting concepts, they believe in freedoms and they are not trying to fight the Freedom of Religion. Their fight is strictly against the Church of Scientology's illegal actions. The websites associated with Anonymous have been attacked frequently, ordered to be silenced by the church's lawyers, and some have been taken down. The Church has some of the best lawyers and has members in many government agencies. They are currently tax exempt under the claim that they are a non-profit organization. But how can a Church that charges its members for sermons/sessions/audits claim to be non-profit? As goofy, outlandish, and crazy as it sounds, they infiltrated the IRS and got the exempt status from the inside. How have they not been caught? Some have... Some have gone to jail for fraud, including L. Ron Hubbard himself. It can cost up to $300 per session, and over $300,000 for their complete series of sessions and audits.
What else is the Church of Scientology guilty of? Murder. Scientologists don't practice modern medicine, they believe psychiatry is a false science that kills, and they have their own ways of curing ailments. They claim that the cause of every ailment one suffers comes from the mind (it's all in your head type of stuff.) They have had frequent cases where they take followers who NEED modern care off of their medication. Instead they give them vitamins and auditing sessions. The result, depending on the ailment, can be fatal. MANY deaths have occurred in the Church of Scientology's headquarters in Clearwater; FL. Documents of these deaths can be found at http://whyaretheydead.net

The next wave of this war is peaceful protest. On February 10th, there will be protests around the globe at Churches of Scientology. February 10th, the birth date of the woman who suffered one of the most controversial deaths caused by the Church of Scientology, Lisa McPherson. Want to do something about the Church of Scientology's illegal reign in the world? Post a broad cast CNN about our protest worldwide Feb 10. Spread the word. Attend a protest. Do some research?
Attached to this letter are a few protest fliers and posters. Look at them.
Check out the following websites! http://xenu.net, http://whyaretheydead.net on regards to the websites, there are more and there used to be a lot more, but these two are some of the only ones that have been able to survive the Church of Scientology's legal team, disclosure of additional sites may result in them being taken down. So use Google.com for research. Try searching the following things: "Truth about Scientology," "Scientology and Me BBC," "Scientology Documents," "Scientology Secrets."

Don't believe the previous websites or this Letter? Then why believe anything at all?
Also, we are writing to get the word spread, CNN seemed a great start. The Church of Scientology may have been able to shut down Anonymous site, but they can't shut down a mass CNN Broadcast on local news or video. Please help anonymous deal with this problem; we are not hackers full of steroids blowing up yellow vans. We are stopping a dangerous cult, Please Help us get the word out to the public about this cult.

Thank you for your time, Anonymous

The next part was a letter to the church I guess.
Dear Scientology,

You are scum. You are the lowest of the low. Whether or not you believe an inkling of the impossible nonsense you trot out to masquerade as a religion, you are still guilty of the willing and knowing destruction of countless lives. You are charlatans of the highest order, and must be stopped in the name of reason, justice, honesty, and every other basic human virtue. You have committed innumerable treacheries against fellow people. You charge exorbitant sums of money for what you claim is enlightenment. All texts and practices associated with gaining a greater understanding of your belief system require ludicrous sums of cash. Your entire Church’s structure is designed to ensnare those who invest in attempting to progress in the faith you promise them, and continue to drain them of money. Your greed is clearly evidenced in the carrot-and-stick methodology of cementing the faith of your constituency. The further ones gets, the more one has been coerced into spending, and will go on spending so as not to lose face. What you claim is a hierarchy of faith is but a thinly veiled pyramid scheme to those who are not clouded in judgment by your lies. You hide behind state and religion to make a quick buck. Anonymous feels it is time to shut you down. You don't need to pay money in order to cleanse your soul. This is not a religion it is a worldwide scam.

Many understand you do whatever it takes to steal money from as many people as you can. The 500$ stress test, or the 200,000$ to join scientology, does it sound like a religion? Anonymous thinks not. You believe Tom Cruise is your god; Money cannot buy religion, as you feel it does. You can contact Microsoft, You can create a patch, but you will not stop Anonymous. We have infiltrated your Cult. Inside Spies are allowing us to know your every move. We are not attacking the people of Scientology, but thus its followers and what you have lead them to believe. We are here to inform people of your actions. Operation “freak-out”, Operation “Snow-White” and to know about former members of Scientology's private navy, SeaOrg, who were forced to have abortions so that they could continue in service to the church. We understand you have lots of money, we understand you make people buy religion; we understand you can persuade the government with money and free audits. That will not stop Anonymous, Anonymous will not fail. We will keep attacking until the people know and understand you are a dangerous cult, the deaths of Lisa McPherson, Josephus A. Havenith, and the many others that Scientology has lead to their deaths will not remain in vain. We will stand up united and laugh at Scientology as anonymous watches your sites, and your members leave. We will listen to the wise beard man; we will attack you by your weaknesses. We will hit you where it will hurt the most, your tax Exempt, Letters to CNN about scientology, Letters to the senator. We will infiltrate and destroy.

Many may not know what Anonymous is, many may believe we are hackers on steroids, after the truth is exposed about Scientology, we will grow, in mass numbers. For everyone that falls, ten more rise up to power. Be very wary of the 10th of February. Anonymous invites you to join us in an act of solidarity. Anonymous invites you to take up the banner of free speech, of human rights, of family and freedom. Join us in protest outside of Scientology centers worldwide. Send letters to CNN, to your local news cast or radio station, Talk to your senator, Hold small protest’s at a Scientology church near you. We will take Scientology down legally, and in a safe manner. We are Anonymous. We are Legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. We will be heard. Expect us.
I've always heard that Scientology is a deal where you pay and pay and pay and eventually become a church insider and learn the ultimate secret- that we were born from aliens. I think it's all pretty creepy, but if it makes people happy to follow them, more power to them. Like the Mormons, I personally have a hard time following a group that was just sort of started by a normal person (and a shady one at that, in both cases), but people like music and foods I don't like or understand, so I let them role how they roll.

The Grapes of Wrath Plot Summary and analysis

Author: John Steinbeck
Born: February 27, 1902; Salinas, California
Died: December 20, 1968; New York, New York


Type of Work: Novel
Type of Plot: Social realism
Time of Work: 1930’s
Locale: Midwestern United States and California

Principal Characters:

Tom Joad, Jr., a former convict

Pa Joad, an Okie

Ma Joad, his wife

Rose of Sharon (Rosasharn), Tom’s sister

Jim Casy, a labor agitator
The Story:

Tom Joad, Jr. was released from the Oklahoma state penitentiary where he had served a sentence for killing a man in self-defense. He traveled homeward through a region made barren by drought and dust storms. On the way, he met Jim Casy, a former preacher; the pair went together to the home of Tom’s family. They found the Joad place deserted. While Tom and Casy were wondering what had happened, Muley Graves, a die-hard tenant farmer, came by and disclosed that all the families in the neighborhood had gone to California or were going. Tom’s folks, Muley said, had gone to a relative’s place to prepare for going west. Muley was the only sharecropper to stay behind. All over the southern Midwest states, farmers, no longer able to make a living because of land banks, weather, and machine farming, had sold or were forced out of the farms they had tenanted. Junk dealers and used-car salesmen profiteered on them. Thousands of families took to the roads leading to the promised land: California.

Tom and Casy found the Joads at Uncle John’s place, all busy with preparations for their trip to California. Assembled for the trip were Pa and Ma Joad; Noah, their mentally retarded son; Al, the adolescent younger brother of Tom and Noah; Rose of Sharon, Tom’s sister, and her husband, Connie; the Joad children, Ruthie and Winfield; and Granma and Grampa Joad. Al had bought an ancient truck to take them West. The family asked Jim Casy to go with them. The night before they started, they killed the pigs they had left and salted down the meat so that they would have food on the way.

Spurred by handbills which stated that agricultural workers were badly needed in California, the Joads, along with thousands of others, made their tortuous way, in a worn-out vehicle, across the plains toward the mountains. Grampa died of a stroke during their first overnight stop. Later, there was a long delay when the truck broke down. Small business people along the way treated the migrants as enemies, and, to add to their misery, returning migrants told the Joads that there was no work to be had in California, that conditions were even worse than they were in Oklahoma. The dream of a bountiful West Coast, however, urged the Joads onward.

Close to the California line, where the group stopped to bathe in a river, Noah, feeling he was a hindrance to the others, wandered away. It was there that the Joads first heard themselves addressed as Okies, another word for tramps. Granma died during the night trip across the desert. After burying her, the group went into a Hooverville, as the migrants’ camps were called. There they learned that work was all but impossible to find. A contractor came to the camp to sign up men to pick fruit in another county. When the Okies asked to see his license, the contractor turned the leaders over to a police deputy who had accompanied him to camp. Tom was involved in the fight that followed. He escaped, and Casy surrendered himself in Tom’s place. Connie, husband of the pregnant Rose of Sharon, suddenly disappeared from the group. The family was breaking up in the face of its hardships. Ma Joad did everything in her power to keep the group together.

Fearing recrimination after the fight, the Joads left the Hooverville and went to a government camp maintained for transient agricultural workers. The camp had sanitary facilities, a local government made up of the transients themselves, and simple organized entertainment. During the Joads’ stay at the camp, the Okies successfully defeated an attempt of the local citizens to give the camp a bad name and thus to have it closed to the migrants. For the first time since they had arrived in California, the Joads found themselves treated as human beings.

Circumstances eventually forced them to leave the camp, however, for there was no work in the district. They drove to a large farm where work was being offered. There they found agitators attempting to keep the migrants from taking the work because of the unfair wages offered. The Joads, however, thinking only of food, were escorted by motorcycle police to the farm. The entire family picked peaches for five cents a box and earned in a day just enough money to buy food for one meal. Tom, remembering the pickets outside the camp, went out at night to investigate. He found Casy, who was the leader of the agitators. While Tom and Casy were talking, deputies, who had been searching for Casy, closed in on them. The pair fled but were caught. Casy was killed. Tom received a cut on his head, but not before he had felled a deputy with an ax handle. The family concealed Tom in their shack. The rate for a box of peaches dropped, meanwhile, to two-and-a-half cents. Tom’s danger and the futility of picking peaches drove the Joads on their way. They hid the injured Tom under the mattresses in the back of the truck, and then they told the suspicious guard at the entrance to the farm that the extra man they had had with them when they came was a hitchhiker who had stayed behind to pick.

The family found at last a migrant crowd encamped in abandoned boxcars along a stream. They joined the camp and soon found temporary jobs picking cotton. Tom, meanwhile, hid in a culvert near the camp. Ruthie innocently disclosed Tom’s presence to another little girl. Ma, realizing that Tom was no longer safe, sent him away. Tom promised to carry on Casy’s work in trying to improve the lot of the downtrodden everywhere.

The autumn rains began. Soon the stream that ran beside the camp overflowed and water entered the boxcars. Under these all but impossible conditions, Rose of Sharon gave birth to a dead baby. When the rising water made their position no longer bearable, the family moved from the camp on foot. The rains had made their old truck useless. They came to a barn, which they shared with a boy and his starving father. Rose of Sharon, bereft of her baby, nourished the famished man with the milk from her breasts. So the poor kept each other alive in the years of the Great Depression.
Critical Evaluation:

The publication of John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath caused a nationwide stir in 1939. This account of the predicament of migrant workers was taken more as a social document than as fiction. Some saw it as an exposé of capitalist excesses; others, as a distorted call to revolution. Frequently compared to Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Or, Life Among the Lowly (1852), it was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in 1940.

Recent literary critics, taking a second look at the novel, have often lumped it with a number of other dated books of the 1930’s as “proletarian fiction.” A careful reader, however, recognizes that beneath this outraged account of an outrageous social situation lies a dynamic, carefully structured story that applies not only to one era or society but also to the universal human predicament.

As a social document, the novel presents such a vivid picture of oppression and misery that one tends to doubt its authenticity. Steinbeck, however, had done more than academic research. He had journeyed from Oklahoma to California, lived in a migrant camp, and worked alongside the migrants. (According to one report, after the novel appeared, the workers sent Steinbeck a patchwork dog sewn from scraps of their clothing and wearing a tag labeled “Migrant John.”) Before making the motion picture, which still stands as one of the great films of the era, Darryl F. Zanuck hired private detectives to verify Steinbeck’s story; they reported that conditions were even worse than those depicted in the book. The political situation was a powder keg.

Social injustice was depicted so sharply that Steinbeck himself was accused of being a revolutionary. Certainly, he painted the oppressive economic system in bleak colors. Many critics note, however, that Steinbeck was basically a reformer, not a revolutionary. He wanted to change the attitudes and behavior of people—both migrants and economic barons—not overturn the private enterprise system. Indeed, Steinbeck observes that ownership of land is morally edifying to humankind.

Steinbeck once declared that the writer must “set down his time as nearly as he can understand it” and that he should “serve as the watchdog of society . . . to satirize its silliness, to attack its injustices, to stigmatize its faults.” In The Grapes of Wrath, he does all these things, then goes further to interpret events from a distinctly American point of view. Like Walt Whitman, he expresses love for all men and respect for manual labor. Like Thomas Jefferson, he asserts a preference for agrarian society in which people retain a close, nourishing tie to the soil. His farmers dwindle psychologically as they are separated from their land, and the California owners become oppressors as they substitute ledgers for direct contact with the soil. Like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steinbeck demonstrates faith in the common people and in the ideal of self-reliance. He also develops the Emersonian religious concept of an oversoul. The preacher Jim Casy muses “. . . maybe that’s the Holy Sperit—the human sperit—the whole shebang. Maybe all men got one big soul ever’body’s a part of it.” Later, Tom Joad reassures Ma that even if he isn’t physically with her, “Wherever they’s a fight so hungry people can eat, I’ll be there. Wherever they’s a cop beatin’ up a guy, I’ll be there. . . . I’ll be in the way kids laugh when they’re hungry an’ they know supper’s ready. . . .”

This theme, that all people essentially belong together and are a part of one another and of a greater whole that transcends momentary reality, is what removes The Grapes of Wrath from the genre of timely proletarian fiction and makes it an allegory for all people in all circumstances. Warren French notes that the real story of this novel is not the Joads’ search for economic security but their education, which transforms them from self-concern to a recognition of their bond with the whole human race. At first, Tom Joad is intensely individualistic, interested mainly in making his own way; Pa’s primary concern is keeping bread on his table; Rose of Sharon dreams only of traditional middle-class success; and Ma, an earth mother with a spine of steel, concentrates fiercely upon keeping the “fambly” together. At the end, Tom follows Casy’s example in fighting for human rights; Pa, in building the dike, sees the necessity for all people to work together; Rose of Sharon forgets her grief over her stillborn child and unhesitatingly lifts a starving man to her milk-filled breast; and Ma can say “Use’ ta be the fambly was fust. It ain’t so now. It’s anybody. Worse off we get, the more we got to do.” Thus the Joads have overcome that separation that one may equate with sin, the alienation from others that existentialists are so fond of describing as the inescapable human condition.

It is interesting to note how much The Grapes of Wrath, which sometimes satirizes, sometimes attacks organized Christian religion, reflects the Bible. In structure, as critics have been quick to notice, it parallels the story of the Exodus to a “promised land.” Symbolically, as has been noted by critics, the initials of Jim Casy are those of Jesus Christ, another itinerant preacher who rebelled against traditional religion, went into the wilderness, discovered his own gospel, and eventually gave his life in service to others. Language, too, is frequently biblical, especially in those chapters which, like a Greek chorus, restate, reinforce, and generalize from the specific happenings of the narrative. The cadences, repetitions, and parallel lines all echo the patterns of the Psalms—Ma Joad’s favorite book. Even the title of the novel is biblical; the exact phrase is from the American reformer Julia Ward Howe, but the reference is to Jeremiah and Revelation. The grapes have been a central symbol throughout the book—first of promise, representing the fertile California valleys, but finally of bitter rage as the Midwesterners realize that they have been lured West with false bait and that they will not partake of this fertility. The wrath grows, a fearsome, terrible wrath, but, as several chapters make clear, better wrath than despair, because wrath moves to action. Steinbeck would have his people act, in concert and in concern for one another, and finally prevail over all forms of injustice.

All Quiet on the Western Front, Plot Summary and Analysis

Author: Erich Maria Remarque
Born: June 22, 1898; Osnabrück, Germany
Died: September 25, 1970; Locarno, Switzerland


Type of Work: Novel
Type of Plot: Political
Time of Work: World War I
Locale: Western front and Germany

Principal Characters:

Paul Bäumer, a young german soldier, a private

Kropp,

Müller, and

Kemmerich, several of his young comrades

Tjaden,

Haie Westhus, and

Detering, slightly older draftees, also Bäumer’s comrades

Stanislaus Katczinsky (Kat), the group’s forty-year-old leader

Corporal Himmelstoss, the recruits’ antagonistic training instructor

Kantorek, the younger soldiers’ former high school teacher
The Story:

Paul Bäumer was a typical German soldier in World War I. He joined up, fought, experienced the horrors and madness of war, saw his comrades killed, and was finally killed himself. He told his own story in vignettes that do not follow chronologically, until finally an outside narrator reported his death on a day when the army report said only, “All quiet on the western front.”

Bäumer and his comrades were somewhere behind the lines of the western front late in the war. They had just been relieved from a grueling stint as sappers at the front and were pleased to find that the terrible loss of nearly half their company had the pleasurable consequence of double rations. They ate well, those who were still alive to do so, and later they enjoyed a long game of cards, deploying several portable wooden latrine boxes in a tight circle. Paul spoke often throughout his tale of how soldiering intensified the simple pleasures of eating and defecating. Following this renewing pause, the group of soldiers went to visit their friend Kemmerich, whose leg would have to be amputated because of a battle wound. The friends—Paul Bäumer, Müller, and Kropp—saw that Kemmerich was near death; after leaving him they discussed the matter of his fine boots: Following his death they would be of no use to him, they knew. This was a fact. Kemmerich, also practical, passed his boots on to Müller just before his death. The boots, though good to wear, soon brought death to their wearer, it turned out.

Paul, along with his school chums, had been encouraged to join up by a typically enthusiastic, nationalistic high school teacher named Kantorek. Upon joining the army, Paul was first subjected to the rigors and trials of boot camp at the sadistic hands of Corporal Himmelstoss. His young group of volunteers met new draftees, generally somewhat older North German farmers. Paul’s group, back in camp after devastating losses, watched new recruits arriving. Although Paul and his comrades had been soldiers themselves for no more than a few months, they felt like ancient, hardened veterans. Camp and drill life had taught them about the petty and pointless aspects of the army; but at the same time they had learned to fend for themselves, to view the officers and drill sergeants with suspicion, and to let themselves become indifferent to emotions, pain, and exhaustion. Himmelstoss met Paul and his comrades behind the lines in camp. By now they had experienced the horrors of battle and knew a great deal more than their old tyrant. One fine evening, as Himmelstoss returned alone from a bar, they ambushed and beat him. Their revenge for all his spiteful tortures in months past was pure and sweet, and they felt no remorse.

Back at the front, Paul’s sapper detail once again experienced the horrors of modern trench warfare: artillery barrages, gas attacks, long hours in damp, dark dugouts, death and loss. The convulsed earth was the only refuge for the soldiers, though the screams of wounded horses pierced even the relative safety of their dugouts and caused the survivors even more pain. During the next respite behind the lines, the soldiers spent time killing their lice, stealing and roasting geese, and plotting another round of revenge against Himmelstoss, who had been assigned to their fighting unit. Some of the older soldiers took special pleasure in insulting Himmelstoss; it got them three days’ arrest, which they regarded as a welcome furlough from duty. The next stint at the front, the most gruesome yet, entailed a great deal of hand-to-hand fighting, broken only by artillery barrages and the distractions of corpse-eating rats. New recruits always died at a much faster rate than the veterans like Paul, Kat, and their friends, and the old circle of soldiers saw the folly of sending in barely trained boys. They began to criticize the planners’ conduct of the war, which was resulting in a lost generation. Himmelstoss encountered his former trainees again when Paul found him cowering in a dugout at the front. Upon returning to the rear again, Paul’s company had only thirty-two men, one-fifth of its original number.

Two important episodes followed this devastating mission, an erotic encounter with local French-speaking women, and Paul’s home leave. The meeting with beautiful women only seemed lighthearted, for actually they traded their bodies only because they were nearly starving; a melancholy fog lay over the whole adventure. During Paul’s subsequent home leave he discovered the chasm which from then on would separate him from his past. His mother treated him still as a child and could understand nothing of his changed personality. His father thought he was a war hero and forced him to endure the company of the local armchair generals, who were hopelessly out of touch. No one at home could begin to understand Paul’s loss and the profundity of his change. The tragic state of Russian prisoners of war whom Paul saw at home impressed him with the hopelessness and tragedy of war and his victimization by it. Things were even more painful back at the front. Paul stabbed a French soldier and remained pinned down by the body overnight in a shell crater. Paul retrieved his victim’s wallet and saw his pictures and letters, his life and humanity. Knowing his victim’s name, Paul was nearly crushed by his own deed, which had suddenly become personal. The frequency of death increased; Paul’s comrades were killed off until only he and his best friend Kat were left. Then Kat was shot, first wounded, then killed while being carried to safety. After more death, loneliness, and hopelessness, Paul, too, was killed, another insignificant soul devoured by the war machine.
Critical Evaluation:

Although it is not the first war novel of the “war novel boom” of the late 1920’s and early 1930’s, Erich Maria Remarque’s book is by far the best known. Within its first year of publication more than one and a half million copies were in print in twelve languages, and about forty million copies were sold in Remarque’s lifetime, making it one of the best-selling German books of all time. Despite—or perhaps because of—its unparalleled popularity, All Quiet on the Western Front received relatively little serious critical attention. The work continued to be considered popular literature by most critics, even though Remarque received many literary awards and was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature. The novel’s popularity is in part due to its omnibus message. Though eventually seen by most as the antiwar book that it is, in the politically and socially chaotic climate of the late Weimar Republic the novel spoke to readers on both the pacifist left and the militarist right. In condemning the war’s needless carnage and attributing that to the officers, Remarque served the pacifist agenda; at the same time, however, the book was seen to glorify the simple patriotic soldiering of Paul and his comrades and, in so doing, to confirm the good memories many soldiers had of the war.

Early reviewers debated the book’s authenticity, many treating it as a memoir or diary rather than as a fictional creation. Others chose to attack the book for what they perceived as its pacifist, antiauthoritarian message by impugning the author and questioning his personal war record. Remarque did indeed serve on the western front briefly in the summer of 1917; though he was not a decorated officer, he was wounded on the first day of the battle of Flanders. In fact, the source of an iron cross pinned to his uniform in one 1918 photograph is suspect. Remarque’s dandified airs—the altered spelling of his name from the original Remark, his high society contacts, and love for auto racing and famous actresses—allowed conservative critics to cast further doubt on the realism of his portrayal of war. It is missing the point, however, to try to tie Remarque’s novel directly to actual war experiences. More than anything else, the novel represents the emotional impact of the war on the young generation of recruits who fought it. Gertrude Stein called these men the “lost generation”: They could no longer have faith in the elders who had thrown them into the trenches, nor did they have anything meaningful to go home to. This was a generation made lonely by the war; as Paul Bäumer put it, “We will be superfluous even to ourselves.”

Copies of All Quiet on the Western Front were burned by the Nazis in May, 1933, along with works by Jewish writers, pacifists, socialists, and others they believed were enemies of the state or of the German people. The Nazis burned Remarque’s works because of what they called his “literary betrayal of the soldiers in the world war.” Remarque emigrated, first to Switzerland, then to the United States, and Nazi Germany revoked his citizenship in 1938. He returned to Switzerland after World War II.

Scholars continue to find the novel interesting because of its immense impact on the popular understanding of World War I. The novel also has much to offer artistically, however. Like many works of the Weimar Republic period (1919-1933), it shows remnants of literary expressionism. Remarque presents a version of the generational conflict, especially between fathers and sons, which had been pointed out so clearly by many of his contemporaries, and there are passages of lyrical organicism, such as those in which Paul seeks safety in the earth or solace in a tree-lined vista, as well as, in certain key passages, an exultant, declarative style. All Quiet on the Western Front tells a tragic story of loss and helplessness, yet it also contains important moments of life-affirming energy.

Great Expectations Plot Summary and Analysis

Author: Charles Dickens
Born: February 7, 1812; Portsmouth, Hampshire, England
Died: June 9, 1870; Gad’s Hill, near Rochester, Kent, England

Type of Work: Novel
Type of Plot: Bildungsroman
Time of Work: Nineteenth century
Locale: England

Principal Characters:

Pip, an orphan

Joe Gargery, Pip’s brother-in-law

Miss Havisham, an eccentric recluse

Estella, Miss Havisham’s ward

Herbert Pocket, Pip’s roommate

Mr. Jaggers, a solicitor

Abel Magwitch (Mr. Provis), a convict

Compeyson, a villain
The Story:

Little Pip had been left an orphan when he was a small boy, and his much older sister had grudgingly reared him in her cottage. Pip’s brother-in-law, Joe Gargery, on the other hand, was kind and loving to the boy. Pip often wandered alone in the marsh country where he lived with his sister and Joe. One day, he was accosted by a wild-looking stranger who was an escaped prisoner. He frightened Pip and demanded that the boy secretly bring him food and a file to cut the iron chain that bound his leg. When Pip brought him a pork pie and file, he saw another mysterious figure on the marsh. This man engaged in a desperate struggle with the escaped prisoner, then escaped into the fog. The man whom Pip had aided promised that he would somehow repay the boy for helping him. He was later apprehended.

Mrs. Joe sent Pip to the large mansion of strange Miss Havisham upon that lady’s request. Miss Havisham lived in a gloomy, locked house where all the clocks had been stopped on the day her bridegroom failed to appear for the wedding ceremony. She often dressed in her bridal robes; a wedding breakfast molded on the table in an unused room. Pip went there every day to visit the old lady and a beautiful young girl, named Estella, who delighted in tormenting the shy boy. Miss Havisham enjoyed watching the two children together, and she encouraged Estella in her haughty teasing of Pip.

Living in the grim atmosphere of Joe’s blacksmith shop and the uneducated poverty of his sister’s home, Pip was eager to learn. One day, a London solicitor named Jaggers presented him with the opportunity to go to London and become a gentleman. Both Pip and Joe accepted the proposal. Pip imagined that his kind backer was Miss Havisham and that perhaps she wanted to make a gentleman out of him so that he would be fit someday to marry Estella.

In London, Pip found a small apartment set up for him. Herbert Pocket, a young relative of Miss Havisham, was his living companion. When Pip needed money, he was instructed to go to Mr. Jaggers. Although Pip pleaded with the lawyer to disclose the name of his benefactor, Jaggers advised the eager young man not to make inquiries; when the proper time arrived, Pip’s benefactor would make himself known.

Soon Pip became one of a small group of London dandies, among them a disagreeable chap named Bentley Drummle. To Pip’s dismay, Joe Gargery came to visit; Pip, who had outgrown his rural background, was ashamed of Joe’s simple manners, but Herbert Pocket cheerfully helped Pip to entertain Joe in their apartment. After he had left for the evening, Pip felt ashamed of himself. Joe had brought word that Miss Havisham wanted to see the young man, so Pip returned to his old home with his brother-in-law. Miss Havisham and Estella noted the changes in Pip, and when Estella left Pip alone with the old lady, she told him he must fall in love with the beautiful girl. She also said it was time for Estella to come to London, and that she wished Pip to meet her adopted daughter when she arrived. This request made Pip feel even more certain that he had been sent to London by Miss Havisham to be groomed to marry Estella.

Estella had not been in London long before she had many suitors. Of all the men who courted her, she seemed to favor Bentley Drummle. Pip saw Estella frequently. Although she treated him kindly and with friendship, he knew she did not return his love.

On his twenty-first birthday, Pip received a caller. It was Abel Magwitch, the man whom Pip had helped in the marsh many years earlier. He told Pip that it was he who had been financing him ever since he had come to London. At first, the boy was horrified to discover he owed so much to this crude, coarse man, a former criminal. Magwitch told Pip that he had been sent to the Colonies, where he had grown rich. Now he wanted Pip to enjoy all the privileges that he himself had been denied in life. He had returned to England to see the boy to whom he had tried to be a second father. He warned Pip that he was in danger should his presence be discovered, for it was death for a prisoner to return to England once he had been sent to a convict colony. Pip detested his plight. He realized that Miss Havisham had had nothing to do with his great expectations in life, but he was too conscious of his debt to consider abandoning the man whose person he disliked. He determined to do all in his power to please his benefactor. Magwitch, who was using the name Provis to hide his identity, told Pip that the man with whom Pip had seen him struggling long ago in the marsh was his enemy, Compeyson, who had vowed to destroy him. Herbert Pocket, a distant cousin of Miss Havisham, informed Pip that the lover who had betrayed her on her wedding day had been named Arthur Compeyson.

Pip went to see Miss Havisham to denounce her for having allowed him to believe that she was helping him. On his arrival, he was informed that Estella was to marry Bentley Drummle. Since Miss Havisham had suffered at the hands of one faithless man, she had reared Estella to inflict as much hurt as possible upon the many men who would fall in love with her. Estella reminded Pip that she had warned him not to fall in love with her, since she had no compassion for any human being. Pip returned once more to visit Miss Havisham after Estella was married. An accident started a fire in the old, dust-filled mansion; although Pip tried to save the old woman, she died in the blaze, which also badly damaged the gloomy house.

From Provis’ story of his association with Compeyson and from other evidence, Pip had learned that Provis was Estella’s father; he did not reveal his discovery to anyone but Jaggers, whose housekeeper was Estella’s mother. Pip had also learned that Compeyson was in London and plotting to kill Provis. In order to protect the man who had tried to befriend him, Pip arranged to smuggle Provis across the channel to France with the help of Herbert Pocket. Pip intended to join the old man there. Elaborate and secretive as their plans were, Compeyson managed to overtake them as they were putting Provis on the boat. The two enemies fought one last battle in the water, and Provis killed his enemy. He was then taken to jail, where he died before he could be brought to trial.

When Pip fell ill shortly afterward, it was Joe Gargery who came to nurse him. Older and wiser from his many experiences, Pip realized that he no longer needed to be ashamed of the kind man who had given so much love to him when he was a boy. His sister, Mrs. Joe, had died and Joe had married again, this time very happily. Pip, still desolate and unhappy because of his lost Estella, returned to the blacksmith’s home to recuperate. Later, Herbert Pocket and Pip set up business together in London.

Eleven years passed before Pip went to see Joe Gargery again. Curiosity led him to the site of Miss Havisham’s former mansion. There he found Estella, now a widow, wandering over the grounds. During the intervening years, she had lost her cool aloofness and had softened a great deal. She told Pip she had thought of him often. Pip was able to foresee that perhaps he and Estella would never have to part again. The childhood friends walked hand in hand from the place that had once played such an enormous part in both of their lives.
Critical Evaluation:

G. K. Chesterton once observed that all of Charles Dickens’ novels could be titled “Great Expectations,” for they are full of an unsubstantial yet ardent expectation of everything. Nevertheless, as Chesterton pointed out with irony, the only book to which Dickens actually gave the title was one in which most of the expectations were never realized. To the Victorians, the word “expectations” meant legacy as well as anticipations. In that closed society, one of the few means by which a person born of the lower or lower-middle class could rise to wealth and high status was through inheritance. A major theme of the Victorian social novel involved a hero’s passage through the class structure, and a major vehicle of that passage was money bestowed upon him, acquired through marriage, or inherited. Unlike many nineteenth century novels that rely upon the stale plot device of a surprise legacy to enrich the fortunate protagonists, Great Expectations probes deeply into the ethical and psychological dangers of advancing through the class system by means of wealth acquired from the toil of others.

Although the story of Pip’s expectations dominates the novel, he is not the only person who waits to benefit from the money of another. His beloved Estella, the ward of Miss Havisham, is wholly dependent upon the caprices of the unstable old woman. Moreover, other characters are the mysterious instrumentalities of legacies. The solicitor Jaggers, who acts as the legal agent for both Miss Havisham and Abel Magwitch, richly benefits from his services. Even his lackey Mr. Wemmick, a mild soul who changes his personality from lamb to wolf to please his employer, earns his living from the legal machinery of the courts. Just as the source of Pip’s money is revealed at last to be socially corrupted, so the uses of tainted wealth inevitably bring about corruption.

In Bleak House (1852-1853), Dickens had already explored with great skill the ruthless precincts of the law courts. His next three novels—Hard Times (1854), Little Dorrit (1855-1857), and A Tale of Two Cities (1859)—were not so well sustained and were, despite memorable scenes, less popular with the critics and public alike. Great Expectations (1860-1861, first published serially in All the Year Round) restored Dickens’ supremacy with his vast reading audience. Serious, controlled, and nearly as complex structurally as Bleak House, the novel also reminded Victorian readers of David Copperfield (1849-1850). Both are apprenticeship novels that treat the life education of a hero. Great Expectations is somewhat less autobiographical than David Copperfield, but it repeats the basic formula of the genre: that of an honest, rather ingenuous but surely likeable young man who, through a series of often painful experiences, learns important lessons about life and himself. These lessons are always designed to reveal the hero’s limitations. As he casts off his own weaknesses and better understands the dangers of the world, he succeeds by advancing through the class system and ends up less brash, a chastened but wiser man.

Great Expectations differs from David Copperfield, however, in the ways that the hero matures to self-knowledge. In the beginning, both David and Pip are young snobs (Pip more than David). Both suffer the traumas of a shattered childhood and troubled adolescence, but David’s childhood suffering is fully motivated on the basis of his separation from loved ones. An innocent, he is the victim of evil that he does not cause. Pip, on the other hand, suffers from a childhood nightmare that forms a pattern of his later experience. An orphan like David, he lives with his brutal sister and her husband, the gentle blacksmith Joe Gargery. The abuse he endures from Mrs. Joe is more than compensated for by the brotherly affection of this simple, generous man. He also wins the loving sympathy of Biddy, another loyal friend. Nevertheless, he is not satisfied, and when he comes upon the convicts in the fog and is terrified, he feels a sense of guilt—misplaced but psychologically necessary—as much for his crimes against his protectors as for the theft of a pork pie. Thereafter, his motives, cloudy as the scene of his childhood terror, are weighted with secret apprehension and guilt. To regain his lost innocence, he must purge himself of the causes of this guilt.

Pip’s life apprenticeship, therefore, involves his gaining a full understanding of his “crimes” against loved ones and of the ways to redeem himself. The causes of his guilt are, in order of severity, snobbish pride, his betrayal of friends and protectors, and finally his participation in the machinery of corruption.

As a snob, he not only breaks the social mold into which he has been cast but lords it over the underlings and unfortunates of the class system. Because of his presumed great expectations, he believes himself to be superior to the humbler Joe and Biddy. He makes such a pompous fool of himself that Trabb’s boy—that brilliant comic invention, at once naughty boy and honest philosopher—parodies his absurd airs and pretensions. His snobbery, however, costs him a dearer price than humiliation by an urchin. He falls in love with Estella, like himself a pretender to high social class, only to be rejected in favor of a worthless cad, Bentley Drummle. His fanciful dreams of social distinction are shattered forever when he learns the bitter truth about his benefactor, who is not the highborn Miss Havisham but the escaped convict Magwitch, the wretched stranger of his terror in the fog.

As Pip comes to understand the rotten foundations for his social position, he also learns terrible truths about his own weaknesses. Out of foolish pride, he has betrayed his most loyal friends, Joe and Biddy. In a sense, he has even betrayed Miss Havisham. He has mistaken her insanity for mere eccentricity and allowed her to act out her fantasies of romantic revenge. When he tries to confront her with the reality of her life, he is too late, for she expires in flames. He is almost too late to come to the service of his real benefactor, Magwitch. He is so disturbed with the realization of the convict’s sacrifice that he nearly flees from the old man when he is in danger. At best, he can repay Magwitch with gratitude, not love, and his sense of guilt grows from his understanding that he cannot ever repay his debt to a man he secretly loathes.

Pip’s final lesson is that, no matter how pure might be his motives, he has been one of the instruments of social corruption. In a sense, he is the counterpart to the malcontent Dolge Orlick. Like Orlick, he had as a youth been an apprentice at the forge, but whereas he was fortunate in having moved upward into society, Orlick, consumed by hatred, failed in every enterprise. In chapter 53, a climactic scene of the novel, Orlick confronts his enemy and blames Pip for all of his failures. He even accuses Pip of responsibility for the death of Mrs. Joe. The charge is paranoiac and false: Orlick is the murderer. In his almost hallucinatory terror, however, Pip can psychologically accept Orlick’s reasoning. As a child, Pip had hated his sister. If he had not been the active instrument of her death, he nevertheless profited from it. Similarly, Pip profited from the hard-earned toil of Magwitch. Indeed, most of the success he had enjoyed, thanks to the astute protection of Mr. Jaggers, had come not as his due but for a price, the payment of corrupted money. Since he had been the ignorant recipient of the fruits of corruption, his psychological guilt is all the greater.

Nevertheless, Pip, though chastened, is not destroyed by guilt. During the course of his apprenticeship to life, he learns valuable truths about himself and about his limitations. By the end of his career, when his apprenticeship is over and he is a responsible, mature being, he has cast off petty pride, snobbery, and the vexations of corrupted wealth. Although he has lost his innocence forever, he can truly appreciate Herbert Pocket, Joe, and Biddy, all of whom had retained their integrity. When he turns to Estella, also chastened by her wretched marriage to the sadistic Drummle

Ford Mustang- A Legend


The Ford Mustang is an automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company, originally based on the Ford Falcon compact. The first production Mustang rolled off the assembly line in Dearborn, Michigan on March 9, 1964, and was introduced to the public at the New York World's Fair on April 17, 1964, via all three American television networks on April 19, and made an appearance in the James Bond film Goldfinger in September of 1964. It was one of the most successful product launches in automotive history. The Mustang sold over one million units in its first 18 months on the market. The Mustang created a new "pony car" class of cars by adapting the "long hood, short deck" look of sports cars to compact sedans. It spawned many competitors such as the Camaro, and inspired smaller import coupes such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri. The Mustang has remained in continuous production to present day after many decades and numerous revisions.

The 1967 model year would see the first of the Mustang's many major redesigns with the installation of big-block V8 engines in mind. The overall size was increased, as was the cargo space. Exterior trim changes included concave taillights, side scoop (1967) and chrome (1968) side ornamentation, square rear-view mirrors, along with the usual yearly wheel and gas cap changes. The high-performance 289 option now took a supporting role on the option sheet behind a massive 320 hp (239 kW) 390 cu in (6.4 L) FE engine from the Thunderbird, which was equipped with a four-barrel carburetor. Stock 390 with 4-speed manual Mustangs of the day were recording quarter mile times of mid 13-seconds, with trap speeds of over 105 mph (169 km/h). During the middle of the 1968 model year, a drag racer for the street could be ordered with the optional 428 cu in (7 L) Cobra Jet engine that was officially rated at 335 hp (250 kW).

The interior was more spacious due to an increase in the overall size of the vehicle. The 1967 and 1968 models did away with the "Pony Interior" in favor of a new deluxe interior package, which included special color options, brushed stainless steel (1967) or woodgrain (1968) trim, seat buttons, a tilt steering wheel, and special interior paneling. The air-conditioning option was fully integrated into the dash, the speakers and stereo were upgraded, and unique center and overhead consoles were options. The fastback version had a fold down seat, and the convertible was available with folding glass windows.

The California Special Mustang, or GT/CS, was visually based on the Shelby and was sold only in the Western states. Its sister, the High Country Special was sold in Denver, Colorado. While the GT/CS was only available in coupe form, the High Country Special was available in a fastback and convertible version in 1967 and only as a coupe in 1968.

The 1968 Mustang fastback gained pop culture status when it was used to great effect in the crime thriller Bullitt. Lt. Frank Bullitt, played by legendary actor Steve McQueen, drove a modified Mustang GT-390 fastback, chasing two hitmen in a Dodge Charger in the film's famous car chase through the streets of San Francisco.

The much larger 1973 Mustang was a far different car than the original 1964 model. Ford was deluged with mail from fans of the original car who demanded that the Mustang be returned to its original size and concept. Upon taking over the presidency of Ford Motor Company in December, 1970, Lee Iacocca ordered the development of a smaller Mustang for 1974 introduction with initial plans calling for the downsized Mustang to be based on the compact Ford Maverick, which was similar in size and power to the Falcon upon which the original Mustang had been based. Those plans were later scrapped in favor of an even smaller Mustang based on the subcompact Ford Pinto. Such a car could better compete with smaller sporty import coupes such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, then built by Ford of Germany and Britain, and sold in the U.S. by Mercury as a "captive import".

Dubbed "Little Jewel" by Lee Iacocca himself, the Mustang II was a project spearheaded by the Mustang's original creator. Iacocca believed that the Mustang had strayed too far from its original concept, so a completely redesigned Mustang was in order for 1974. Like the car that preceded it, the Mustang II had its roots in another compact, the Ford Pinto (though less so than the original car was based on the Falcon). The car sold well, with sales of more than 400,000 units the first year. It is worth noting that four of the five years of the Mustang II are on the top-ten list of most-sold Mustangs. The Mustang II featured innovations such as rack-and-pinion steering and a separate engine sub-frame that greatly decreased noise, vibration, and harshness.

The Arab oil embargo, skyrocketing insurance rates, and United States emissions and safety standards destroyed the straight-line performance of virtually every car of the period. In 1974, Chrysler ended production of the Barracuda and its stable mate, the Dodge Challenger. American Motors also discontinued the Javelin at the end of the 1974 model year. GM nearly discontinued the Camaro and Firebird after 1972.

This redesign also saw the release of two separate Special Edition Mustangs. In 2001, the Special Edition Bullitt was released to the public. Available as a hardtop only, the Bullitt was a mildly upgraded version of the standard GT. Designed to be a handling-based vehicle as opposed to an all-out bruiser, the car was factory upgraded with a lowered suspension (3/4 inch), subframe connectors from the convertible models, new Tokico shocks, and brakes from the Cobra (13 in front, 11.7 in rear). The car also received an upgraded exhaust, a re-designed intake, and underdrive pullies. These power upgrades led to a factory rating of 265 hp (198 kW), a gain of five horespower over the standard GT. On the exterior, the car received unique Torq-Thrust style wheels, removal of the fog lights and rear deck spoiler, as well as new trim accents. It was available in three colors: Dark Highland Green, True Blue, and Black.

The success of the 2001 Bullitt led to the production of a second special edition, the 2003 to 2004 Mach 1. The Mach 1 was equipped with a unique R-Code 4.6 L DOHC engine based on the DOHC engine available in the 1999 and 2001 Mustang Cobras, with new cylinder heads from the 2003 to 2004 Cobra (see below) and camshafts from the 5.4 L Triton engine. The engine was rated at 305 hp (227 kW) and raised to 310 hp (231 kW) in 2004 (Hot Rod magazine actually dyno-tested a 2003 Mach 1 and found it to produce approximately 325 hp). The interior of the car was given a retro theme with seats made to look like the "comfort-weave" seats available in the 1960s-era Mach 1s. It also featured retro themed gauges and a unique aluminum shifter ball. On the vehicle's exterior, a Mach 1 package was applied, as well as a functional Shaker scoop, a unique 3-tier hood, decals set on the hood, rocker/door panels, a special chin spoiler, a flat black-rear-spoiler, Magnum-500 style wheels, and a redesigned C-pillar. The car also received the same suspension upgrades as the Bullitt did with the exception of the front and rear stabilizer bars (the Bullit had a larger front, but a smaller rear). The Mach 1 was available in a range of colors including: Azure Blue (a Mach 1 only color), Torch Red, Zinc Yellow (2003 only), Dark Shadow Grey, Black, Oxford White, and two just for 2004 colors, Competition Orange and Screaming Yellow.

In 2003, Ford updated the Fox-based Cobra for the last time. Internally known during its development as the "Terminator," this Cobra, under the direction of Special Vehicle Program Director, O. John Coletti, featured a 4.6 L V8 similar to the older Cobra. Though not often given credit, Coletti was also responsible for saving the Mustang line, which Ford had planned to replace with the Probe. However, it was a radical change with the addition of an Eaton supercharger and an air to water intercooler resulting in 390 horsepower (291 kW) and 390 ft·lbf (529 Nm) of torque. Cast iron engine blocks replaced the aluminum blocks used in Cobras from '96-'01. To cope with increased power, Ford replaced the 5-speed Tremec T-45 transmission with the heavier-duty 6-speed Tremec T-56, which was also found in the Dodge Viper, Chevrolet Corvette, and the now discontinued Camaro Z28. Engineers improved handling by using an independent rear suspension and fitting more aggressive tires, achieving 0.90 g on the skidpad. Unlike the 1999 SVT Cobra, these cars produced significantly more power than the official Ford claims. Most stock 2003 to 2004 Cobras were dynamometer-tested between 410 and 420 hp (313 kW). From the factory, the 2003 to 2004 Cobras ran 1/4 miles in the mid to upper 12s with trap speeds over 110 mph (180 km/h).

At the 2004 North American International Auto Show, Ford introduced a completely redesigned Mustang which was codenamed "S-197" and based on an all-new D2C platform for the 2005 model year. Developed under the direction of Chief Engineer Hau Thai-Tang and exterior styling designer Sid Ramnarace, the fifth generation Mustang draws inspiration from Mustangs of the 1960s, notably the 1967-68 models. It was this redesigned aesthetic that inspired Ford's Senior Vice President of Design, J Mays, to call it "retro-futurism." The 2005 Mustang's unique retro coupe styling complements its muscle car status with an approximate weight to power ratio of 11.5:1. The current Mustangs are manufactured at the AutoAlliance International plant in Flat Rock, Michigan. The base Mustang, equipped with a 5-speed Tremec T-5 manual transmission, is powered by a cast iron block 210 hp (156 kW) 4.0 L SOHC Ford Cologne V6 engine, replacing the 3.8 L pushrod V6. The Mustang GT features a more rugged Tremec TR-3650 transmission with an aluminum 300 hp (224 kW) 4.6 L 3-valve Modular V8 with variable camshaft timing. 2007's Shelby GT, based on the standard GT model, is modified by Carroll Shelby International to produce 319 hp (238 kW) by means of a Ford Racing air intake, performance tune, and upgraded exhaust system. The 2007 Ford Shelby GT500 is equipped with the Tremec TR-6060 transmission, sporting a durable cast iron block generating 500 hp (373 kW) from a supercharged 5.4 L DOHC 32-valve V8 engine.
2006 Ford Mustang Shelby GT-H
2006 Ford Mustang Shelby GT-H

The 2005 Mustang GT is capable of performing a quarter-mile test in 13.5 seconds, with acceleration from 0-60 mph in 4.9 seconds. Added to the rear suspension is a three-linked system which controls the vertical and lateral movements of the axle. All model years of the current Mustang retain a live axle rear suspension providing the benefits of reduced cost and weight over a heavier, more expensive and complicated independent rear suspension, at the expense of handling. Ford has drawn heavy criticism from the motoring journalism community for the decision to equip the current Mustang with the live axle system, due to the poor handling that results. At a press conference, Ford stated that to include a modern suspension system would have added $5,000 to the showroom price of the car. The current Mustang GT also comes equipped with a limited slip differential complete with the same carbon-fiber clutch discs used in the 2003 to 2004 SVT Cobra and the 2007 Shelby GT500. The differential is designed for the 31-spline axles and the 8.8-inch (220 mm) ring gear. The basic V6 model (without the Pony Package), unlike the V8 GT model, lacks a rear anti-sway bar to prevent severe oversteer on hard cornering.[12] The 2007 Mustang V6 and GT chassis, suspension, and body shares many of the same construction designs as the GT500. Thicker sheetmetal support and extra welds can be found on the 2007 chassis. Re-designed strut towers on the 2007 Mustang accommodate the wider 5.4 L 32-valve V8 engine in the GT500. The rear diffuser on the 2007 GT California Special package (GT/CS) is also found on the Shelby GT and GT500.

The Pony Package for the V6 Mustang became available starting in 2006. This option includes upgraded suspension, Bullitt-style wheels (originally only available on the GT), wider tires, a unique grille design with fog lamps, a rear deck spoiler, and unique door striping and emblems. Unlike previous V6-powered Mustangs, the current V6 Mustang has drawn a large aftermarket following. A notable example is Shelby Automobile's Shelby CS6 package for the V6 Mustang, specifically the Paxton supercharger, which increases the power of the V6 up to 350 hp (261 kW).

The Mustang sports additional optional features including: MyColor (a color-configurable instrument cluster available as part of the Interior Upgrade Package), Shaker 500 (500 watts peak output) CD/MP3 6-disc audio system, Shaker 1000 (1,000 watts peak output) CD/MP3 6-disc audio system, and brushed aluminum panels (also part of the Interior Upgrade Package). In 2007, even more options were offered including a DVD-based GPS navigation system made by Pioneer (late availability), power passenger seats, heated seats, revised interior colors, and Sirius satellite radio. The GT Appearance Package made its debut in 2007 as well. This package adds a non-functional hood scoop, bright rolled exhaust tips and an engine cover featuring the pony emblem.

Ford announced in July 2007 that all 2008 Mustangs would have seats containing material derived from soy beans, harking back to some of Henry Ford's ideals.

On December 12, 2007, Ford announced a new option for the 2009 Mustang to be unveiled at the 2008 North American International Auto Show called the glass roof. This $1995 is in effect a full roof sunroof that splits the difference in price and purpose of the coupe and convertible models.

The Plymouth Barracuda

The Plymouth Barracuda is a car that was manufactured by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1964 through 1974. I just saw one listed on eBay. the current bid was 78,000 and the reserve hadn't been met.

Originally introduced a week or two before the Ford Mustang, early Barracudas were put into the "Pony Car" class, thanks to the Mustang. Originally much like a Valiant, the Barracuda struggled for several years to gain identity.

The second-generation Barracuda, though still a 108 in wheelbase A-body sharing many components with the Valiant, was fully redesigned with Barracuda-specific styling and its own range of models including convertibles and fastback and notchback hardtops. The phased introduction during this timeframe of the first US Federal auto safety standards provide the means to discern the model year of a second-generation Barracuda: the 1967 models have no sidemarker lights or reflectors, the 1968 models have round sidemarker lights without reflectors, and the 1969 models have rectangular sidemarker reflectors without lights.

As the pony car class became established and competition increased, Plymouth began to revise the Barracuda's engine options. While the 225 slant-6 was still the base engine, the V8 options in 1967 ranged from the 2-barrel and 4-barrel versions of the 273 to a seldom-ordered 383 in³ (6.3 L) "B" big-block. In 1968 the 273 was replaced by the 318 in³ (5.2 L) LA engine as the smallest V8 available, and the new 340 in³ (5.6 L) LA 4bbl was released. For 1969, Chrysler's largest V8, the 440 in³ (7.2 L) RB big block with 4-barrel carbureted in 1969 became available. There was even a limited production of 50 Super-Stock, non-street legal, Hemi-powered Barracudas (and 50 Hemi Dodge Darts) built in 1968 for use in drag racing. For the South African export market, a 190 BHP high-performance version of the 225 slant-6 called Charger Power was offered with 9.3:1 compression, a 2bbl carburetor, a more aggressive camshaft, and a low-restriction exhaust system. A handful of spinoff Savage GTs were also built, from the second generation Barracuda.

in 1969, Plymouth placed increased emphasis on providing and marketing performance. The 383 engine's output was boosted to 330 bhp, and a new trim package called 'Cuda was released. The 'Cuda was based on the Formula S option, and could be had with either the 340 or the 383 V8.

For 1970, the Barracuda lost all commonality with the Valiant. The all-new 1970 model was built on a shorter, wider version of Chrysler's existing B platform, called the E-body. The fastback was deleted from the line, which now consisted of coupe and convertible models. There was also a Dodge near-twin known as the Challenger; however, no sheet metal interchanged between the two cars ,and the Challenger had a slightly longer wheelbase. Both were aggressively styled, and the high-performance models were marketed as 'Cuda. The E body's engine bay was larger than that of the previous A-body, facilitating the release of Chrysler's 426 in³ (7.0 L) Hemi for the regular retail market.

Two six-cylinder engines were available — a new 198 in³ (3.2 L) version of the slant-6, and the 225 — as well as six different V8s: the 318, 340, 383, 440-4bbl, 440-6bbl, and the 426 Hemi. available. The 440- and Hemi-equipped cars received upgraded suspension components and structural reinforcements to help transfer the power to the road. Barracudas were available with decal sets, hood modifications, and some unusual "high impact" colors such as "Vitamin C", "In-Violet", and "Moulin Rouge".

Race car drivers Swede Savage and Dan Gurney drove identical factory-sponsored AAR (All American Racers) Cudas in the 1970 Trans-Am Series, with great promise (3 poles), but little success (0 wins). The AAR Cudas were equipped with the 340 cid "six pack" (three two-barrel carburetors).

With the 440-6 and 426 Hemi, the straight-line performance from regular production Barracudas became legendary. The 1/4 mile times for were in the vicinity of 13.7 seconds @ 103 mph to 13.4 s @ 108 mph - both among the fastest times of the day.

The Barracuda was changed slightly for 1971, with a new grille and taillights. This would be the only year that the Barracuda would have four headlights, and also the only year of the fender "gills". The 1971 Barracuda engine options would remain the same as that of the 1970 model, except the 4-barrel carbureted 440 engine was not available; all 440-powered Barracudas had a six-barrel carburetor setup instead. The 426 Hemi option would remain, and the Hemi-powered 1971 Barracuda convertible is now considered one of the rarest and most desirable collectible automobiles[citation needed]. Only seven were known to be produced; the six surviving have sold for US$2,000,000 or more each[citation needed].

In 1970 and 1971, two significant options were available: the shaker hood and the Spicer-built Dana 60 rear axle. The shaker hood was available with 340, 383, 440-4bbl and 440-6bbl, and 426 Hemi engines. The heavy-duty (and heavy) Dana 60, with a 9-3/4 in ring gear, was standard equipment with manual transmissions and 440-6bbl and 426 Hemi engines, and was optional on those with the automatic transmission. All engines were slightly detuned and the compression reduced to accommodate the new low-lead gasoline.

After another grille and taillight redesign in 1972, the Barracuda would remain unchanged through 1974, with dual headlights and four circular taillights. But as with all other vehicles of the time, these years saw a progressive decrease in the Barracuda's performance due to tightening safety and exhaust emission regulations. Engines were detuned year by year to reduce exhaust emissions, which also reduced their power output. At the same time, bumpers grew larger and heavier and heavy steel side-impact protection beams were installed inside the doors for 1973. By 1974, only the 318 and 360 engines were available. Higher fuel prices and performance-car insurance surcharges deterred many buyers as the interest in high performance cars waned; sales had dropped dramatically after 1970, and Barracuda production ended April 1, 1974, ten years to the day after it had begun.

The Barracuda is today among the most valuable of muscle cars sought by collectors, although the rarity of specific models and option combinations today is largely the result of low buyer interest and production at the time.

Apollo 14

On this day in History Apollo 14 went to the moon. This was important for two reasons;
it was "getting back in the saddle" for NASA after the near catastrophe of Apollo 13, and it is the flight that finally put one of the original 7 astronauts on the moon. (Alan Sheppard).

It is also the mission in which Alan Shepard hit a golf ball on the moon.

At the beginning of the mission, the CSM Kitty Hawk had difficulty achieving a hard dock with the LM Antares. Repeated attempts to dock went on for 1 hour and 42 minutes, until it was suggested that Kitty Hawk be held against Antares using its thrusters, then the docking probe would be retracted out of the way, hopefully triggering the docking latches. This attempt was successful, and no further docking problems were encountered during the mission.

After separation from the command module, the LM "Antares" also had two serious problems. First, the LM computer began getting an ABORT signal from a faulty switch. NASA believed that the computer might be getting erroneous readings like this if a tiny ball of soldering material had shaken loose and was floating between the switch and the contact, closing the circuit. The immediate solution - tapping on the panel next to the switch - did work briefly, but the circuit soon closed again. If the problem recurred after the descent engine fired, the computer would think the signal was real and would initiate an auto-abort, separating the Ascent Stage from the Descent Stage and climb back into orbit. NASA and the software teams at MIT scrambled to find a solution, and determined the fix would involve reprogramming the computer to ignore the false signal. The software modifications were transmitted to the crew via voice communication, and Mitchell manually entered the changes (amounting to over 80 keystrokes on the LM computer pad) just in time.

A second problem occurred during the powered descent, when the LM radar altimeter failed to automatically lock onto the moon's surface. This was later determined to be an unintended consequence of the software patch. After cycling the landing radar breaker, it successfully acquired a signal, again just in the nick of time. Shepard then manually landed the LM closer to its intended target than any of the other five moon landing missions.

After landing in the Fra Mauro formation - the destination for Apollo 13 - Shepard and Mitchell took two moon walks, adding new seismic studies to the by now familiar Apollo experiment package, and using a "lunar rickshaw" pull cart to carry their equipment. Roosa, meanwhile, took pictures from on board command module "Kitty Hawk" in lunar orbit.

The second moonwalk, or EVA, was intended to reach the rim of the 1,000 foot (300 m) wide Cone Crater. However, the two astronauts were not able to find the rim amid the rolling terrain of the crater's slopes. Later analysis, using the pictures that they took, determined that they had come within 65 feet of the crater's rim.

Shepard and Mitchell deployed and activated various scientific instruments and experiments and collected almost 100 pounds (45 kg) of lunar samples for return to earth. Other Apollo 14 achievements included: first use of Mobile Equipment Transporter (MET); largest payload placed in lunar orbit; longest distance traversed on the lunar surface; largest payload returned from the lunar surface; longest lunar surface stay time (33 hours); longest lunar surface EVA (9 hours and 17 minutes); first use of shortened lunar orbit rendezvous techniques; first use of color TV with new vidicon tube on lunar surface; and first extensive orbital science period conducted during CSM solo operations.

On the way back to Earth, the crew conducted the first U.S. materials processing experiments in space. The Apollo 14 astronauts were the last lunar explorers to be quarantined on their return from the Moon.

Shepard and Mitchell named their landing site Fra Mauro Base, and this designation is recognized by the International Astronomical Union (depicted in Latin on lunar maps as Statio Fra Mauro).

Mission notes

* Shepard is the only astronaut from Project Mercury (the original Mercury Seven astronauts) to reach the Moon. Another of the original seven, Gordon Cooper, had originally been scheduled to command the mission, but according to Chaikin, his casual attitude toward training, along with problems with NASA hierarchy (reaching all the way back to the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight) resulted in his relief. James McDivitt, the commander of Apollo 9, who would have been either the prime crew Lunar Module Pilot or the backup crew commander was unwilling to take a secondary role in the mission.
* Shepard smuggled a makeshift six iron golf club and two golf balls to the moon, and took several swings (one-handed, due to the limited flexibility of the EVA suit). He exuberantly, and somewhat whimsically, exclaimed that the second ball went "miles and miles and miles" in the lunar gravity, but later estimated it actually went 200 to 400 yards (180 to 365 meters). Mitchell then used a lunar scoop handle as a javelin, creating the first 'Lunar Olympics'.
* Mitchell conducted some unauthorized extra-sensory perception experiments while en route to the Moon, with friends back on Earth. Due to a 40-minute delay in the launch, however, the experiment was thrown out of sync, with the friends attempting to receive Mitchell's messages before he sent them during sleep periods. The number of matches were reportedly less than would have been obtained by random chance - Mitchell felt "this (suggested) their subconscious minds knew something was wrong".[citation needed]
* Shepard's moonwalking suit was the first to incorporate red bands on the arms and legs and a red stripe on the top of the lunar EVA sunshade "hood", so as to allow easy identification of the commander while on the surface; on the Apollo 12 pictures, it had been almost impossible to distinguish between the two crewmen, causing a great deal of confusion. This feature was on Jim Lovell's Apollo 13 suit, but because of the accident, this was not used. It was used on the remaining three Apollo flights and is used on both the U.S. and Russian spacesuits on both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station.
* As of 2006, Mitchell is the only surviving member of the crew; Roosa died in 1994 from pancreatitis and Shepard in 1998 from leukemia.
* Roosa, who worked in forestry in his youth, took several hundred tree seeds on the flight. These were germinated after return to earth, and widely distributed around the world as commemorative Moon Trees.
* The mission was a personal triumph for Shepard, who had battled back from Ménière’s disease which grounded him from 1964 to 1968. He and his crew were originally scheduled to fly on Apollo 13, but in 1969 NASA Administrators switched the scheduled crews for Apollo 13 and 14. This was done to place the more experienced Apollo 8 veteran James Lovell in command of what would have been the first lunar landing attempt if both Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 had failed to successfully land.
* The crew got some good-natured razzing in the astronaut office as the first "all-rookie" Apollo crew (Shepard's 1961 flight on Freedom 7 was a suborbital flight). However, the problems they faced with docking and landing tested them as much as any prior or subsequent Apollo crew.

Mission insignia

The oval insignia shows a gold NASA Astronaut Pin, given to U.S. astronauts upon completing their first space flight, traveling from the earth to the moon. A gold band around the edge includes the mission and astronaut names. The designer was Jean Beaulieu.

The backup crew spoofed the patch with its own version, with revised artwork showing the Road Runner cartoon character on the moon, holding a U.S. flag and a flag labeled "1st Team," as a gray-bearded (for Shepard, who was 47 at the time of the mission and the oldest man on the Moon), pot bellied (for Mitchell, who had a pudgy appearance), red furred (for Roosa's red hair) Wile E. Coyote flies in place of the astronaut pin. The flight name is replaced by "BEEP BEEP" and the backup crew's names are given. Several were left as "gotchas" on the "Kitty Hawk."

Quotations

"And it's been a long way, but we're here."
Alan B. Shepard, Jr, his first words on the moon. Unlike Apollo 11's Neil Armstrong and Apollo 12's Pete Conrad, Shepard had already gotten off the ladder and was a few meters from the LM.


Crew

Number in parentheses indicates number of spaceflights by each individual prior to and including this mission.

* Alan Shepard (2) - Commander
* Stuart Roosa (1) - Command Module Pilot
* Edgar Mitchell (1) - Lunar Module Pilot

Backup crew

* Gene Cernan - Commander
* Ronald Evans - Command Module Pilot
* Joe Engle - Lunar Module Pilot

Support crew

* Philip Chapman
* Bruce McCandless II
* William Pogue
* Gordon Fullerton

Flight directors

* Pete Frank, Orange team
* Glynn Lunney, Black team
* Milton Windler, Maroon team
* Gerald Griffin, Gold team

Mission parameters

* Mass: CSM 29,240 kg; LM 15,264 kg
* Perigee: 183.2 km
* Apogee: 188.9 km
* Inclination: 31.12°
* Period: 88.18 min

* Perilune: 108.2 km
* Apolune: 314.1 km
* Inclination: °
* Period: 120 min
* Landing Site: 3.64530° S - 17.47136° W or
3° 38' 43.08" S - 17° 28' 16.90" W

LM - CSM docking

* Undocked: February 5, 1971 - 04:50:43 UTC
* Docked: February 6, 1971 - 20:35:42 UTC

EVAs

EVA 1 start: February 5, 1971, 14:42:13 UTC

* Shepard - EVA 1
* Stepped onto moon: 14:54 UTC
* LM ingress: 19:22 UTC

* Mitchell - EVA 1
* Stepped onto moon: 14:58 UTC
* LM ingress: 19:18 UTC

* EVA 1 end: February 5, 19:30:50 UTC
o Duration: 4 hours, 47 minutes, 50 seconds

EVA 2 start: February 6, 1971, 08:11:15 UTC

* Shepard - EVA 2
* Stepped onto moon: 08:16 UTC
* LM ingress: 12:38 UTC

* Mitchell - EVA 2
* Stepped onto moon: 08:23 UTC
* LM ingress: 12:28 UTC

* EVA 2 end: February 6, 12:45:56 UTC
o Duration: 4 hours, 34 minutes, 41 seconds

Space Program- Ham the Chimp

On this day in history, Ham the Chimp was blasted into space for a 16 minute flight by NASA.

Ham (August 1956? - January 19, 1983), also known as Ham the Chimp and Ham the Astrochimp, was the first hominid launched into outer space. Ham's name is an acronym for the lab that prepared him for his historic mission--the Holloman Aerospace Medical Center, located at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico.

In December 1960, the four-year-old chimpanzee was trained to do simple, timed tasks in response to electric lights and sounds. In his pre-flight training, Ham was taught to push a lever within five seconds of seeing a flashing blue light; failure to do so would result in an application of positive punishment in the form of a mild electric shock to the soles of his feet, while a correct response earned him a banana pellet. After all of the training, it was time to find out whether he could function under the stress and pressure that comes with space travel. What differentiates Ham's mission from all the other primate flights to this point is that he was not merely a passenger, and the results from his test flight led directly to the mission Alan Shepard would make on May 5, 1961 aboard the Freedom 7.

On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury capsule labeled MR-2 and launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida, into outer space. Ham had his vital signs and tasks monitored using computers back on Earth[1]. The capsule suffered a partial loss of pressure during the flight, but Ham's space suit prevented him from suffering any harm. Ham's lever-pushing performance in space was only a fraction of a second slower than on Earth, demonstrating that tasks could be performed in space. Ham's capsule splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean and was recovered by a rescue ship later that day. He only suffered a bruised nose[1]. His flight was only 16 minutes and 39 seconds long.

Ten months later, another chimp, named Enos, successfully orbited the earth. This was several months after Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin's orbital flight, but before US astronaut John Glenn’s orbital flight aboard Mercury's Friendship 7.

After the flight, Ham lived for 17 years in the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., then at the North Carolina Zoo before dying at the age of 27 on January 19, 1983. Ham appeared repeatedly on television, as well as on film with Evel Knievel.

Ham's backup, Minnie, was the only female chimp trained for the Mercury program. After her role in the Mercury program ended, Minnie became part of an Air Force chimpanzee breeding program, producing nine offspring and helping to raise the offspring of several other members of the chimpanzee colony. She was the last surviving astro-chimp. She died at age 41 on March 14, 1998. Minnie is buried next to Ham at the New Mexico Museum of Space History in Alamogordo, New Mexico. Ham was mentioned at the end of the movie "Race to Space".

The Greatest Alt-Rock Songs Ever Part 2

238.
Pet Shop Boys
West End Girls
Please
1986


239.
The Offspring
Why Don't You Get a Job
Americana
1999
240.


System of a Down
Sugar
System of a Down
1999


241.
The Breeders
Cannonball
1993


242.
The Cure
Friday I'm in Love
Wish
1992


243.
Blink182
The Rock Show
Take Off Your Pants And Jacket
2001


244.
Beastie Boys
No Sleep Til Brooklyn
Licensed To Ill
Beastie Boys Licensed to Ill No Sleep Till Brooklyn

245.
Duran Duran
Girls On Film
Duran Duran
1981


246.
Limp Bizkit
Rearranged
Significant Other
1999


247.
Sublime
Caress Me Down
Sublime
1997


248.
The Smashing Pumpkins
Eye
1997
Caress Me Down

249.
Time Zone
World Destruction
1985


250.
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Can't Stop
By The Way
2002

251.
James
Laid
Laid
1993


252.
Metallica
Nothing Else Matters

253.
Depeche Mode
Strangelove
Music For The Masses
1987


254.
Social Distortion
Bad Luck
Somewhere Between Heaven And Hell


1992
Social Distortion Somewhere Between Heaven and Hell Bad Luck

255.
Linkin Park
Breaking the Habit
Meteora
2004


256.
Local H
Bound For the Floor
As Good As Dead
1996


257.
The Specials
Ghost Town

258.
Nine Inch Nails
Down In It
Pretty Hate Machine
1991


259.
Outkast
Hey Ya
2003


260.
Alice in Chains
Rooster
Dirt
1993


261.
Jimmy Eat World
The Middle
Bleed American
2001


262.
The Ramones
Sheena Is a Punk Rocker

263.
Nirvana
Dumb
In Utero
1994


264.
Mighty Mighty Bosstones
The Impression That I Get
1997


265.
Beastie Boys
Sure Shot
Ill Communication
1994
Beastie Boys Ill Communication Sure Shot

266.
Green Day
J.A.R. (Jason Andrew Relva)
1995


267.
UB40
Red Red Wine
Labour Of Love
1983


268.
Foo Fighters
Best of You
In Your Honor
2005


269.
Tori Amos
Cornflake Girl
Under the Pink
1994


270.
Incubus
Wish You Were Here
Morning View
2001


271.
Madness
Our House
Madness
1983


272.
Rage Against the Machine
Renegades of Funk
Renegades
2001


273.
Everlast
What It's Like
Whitey Ford Sings The Blues
1998


274.
Blink182
M&M's


275.
Frankie Goes to Hollywood
Relax
Welcome To The Pleasuredome
1984


276.
The Offspring
All I Want
Ixnay On The Hombre
1997
All I Want

277.
Lenny Kravitz
Are You Gonna Go My Way
Are You Gonna Go My Way
1993


278.
AFI
Girl's Not Grey
Sing the Sorrow
2003


279.
David Bowie
Let's Dance
Let's Dance
1983


280.
311
Amber
From Chaos
2002


281.
Nirvana
All Apologies
In Utero
1993


282.
The Clash
London Calling
London Calling
1980


283.
Fall Out Boy
Dance, Dance
From Under The Cork Tree
2005


284.
Guns N' Roses
Sweet Child O' Mine
1988


285.
The Psychedelic Furs
Pretty in Pink
1986


286.
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Soul to Squeeze
1993


287.
Rob Zombie
Dragula
Hellbilly Deluxe
1998


288.
Duran Duran
Hungry Like the Wolf
Rio
1984


289.
Alice in Chains
Would?
Dirt
1992


290.
Sneaker Pimps
6 Underground
1997


291.
Nine Inch Nails
The Hand That Feeds
With Teeth
2005


292.
Love and Rockets
So Alive
Love and Rockets
1989


293.
Bush
Comedown
Sixteen Stone
1995


294.
Avenged Sevenfold
Bat Country
2005


295.
Counting Crows
Mr. Jones
August & Everything After
1994


296.
Fugazi
Waiting Room

297.
Joy Division
Love Will Tear Us Apart

298.
Soundgarden
Spoonman
Superunknown
1994


299.
Fatboy Slim
The Rockafeller Skank
You've Come a Long Way, Baby
1998


300.
R.E.M.
Losing My Religion
Out Of Time
1991


301.
Metallica
Fade to Black

302.
Green Day
Holiday
American Idiot
2004


303.
Thomas Dolby
She Blinded Me With Science
The Golden Age of Wireless
1983


304.
Incubus
Drive
Make Yourself
2000


305.
Tool
Schism
Lateralus
2001


306.
Hole
Celebrity Skin
Celebrity Skin
1998


307.
The English Beat
Mirror in the Bathroom
I Just Can't Stop It
1983


308.
Pennywise
Victim of Reality
Straight Ahead
2000


309.
Modest Mouse
Float On
Good News For People Who Love Bad News
2004


310.
Pearl Jam
Better Man
Vitalogy
1994


311.
Talking Heads
Once in a Lifetime
Remain in Light
1980


312.
Powerman 5000
When Worlds Collide
1999


313.
The Smashing Pumpkins
Drown

314.
The Chemical Brothers
Block Rockin' Beats
Dig Your Own Hole
1997


315.
Iggy Pop
Lust For Life
1996


316.
Nine Inch Nails
Dead Souls
1995


317.
Coldplay
Clocks
A Rush Of Blood To The Head
2002


318.
Bush
Machinehead
Sixteen Stone
1996


319.
Deftones
Change (In the House of Flies)
White Pony
2000
320.


R.E.M.
The One I Love
Document
1987


321.
Rage Against the Machine
Testify
The Battle Of Los Angeles
2000


322.
Franz Ferdinand
Take Me Out
Franz Ferdinand
2004


323.
Sex Pistols
Anarchy in the UK


324.
Disturbed
Down With the Sickness
The Sickness
2001


325.
EMF
Unbelievable
Schubert Dip
1991


326.
Soundgarden
Fell on Black Days
Superunknown
1994


327.
Midnight Oil
Beds Are Burning
Diesel And Dust
1988


328.
System of a Down
Psycho
Toxicity
2002


329.
The Cranberries
Dreams
Everybody Else Is Doing It, So Why Can't We?
1993


330.
Foo Fighters
Times Like These
One By One
2003


331.
Morrissey
Suedehead
Viva Hate
1988


332.
Cypress Hill
(Rock) Superstar
Skull & Bones
2000


333.
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Scartissue
Californication
1999


334.
Bob Marley
No Woman No Cry

335.
The Offspring
Gone Away
Ixnay On The Hombre
1997
Gone Away

336.
The Cure
Love Cats
1984


337.
Jet
Are You Gonna Be My Girl
Get Born
2003


338.
Green Day
Hitchin' A Ride
Nimrod
1997
Hitchin' a Ride

339.
The Primitives
Crash
1988


340.
Pearl Jam
Elderly Woman Behind the Counter in a Small Town
Vs.
1993


341.
Edwyn Collins
A Girl Like You
1995


342.
Marilyn Manson
The Dope Show
Mechanical Animals
1998


343.
Peter Gabriel
In Your Eyes
So
1986


344.
Weezer
Beverly Hills
Make Believe
2005


345.
Guns N' Roses
Welcome to the Jungle
Appetite for Destruction


346.
No Doubt
Bathwater
Return Of Saturn
2000


347.
AFI
The Leaving Song, Pt. 2
Sing the Sorrow
2003


348.
Billy Idol
Rebel Yell
Rebel Yell
1983


349.
Live
I Alone
Throwing Copper
1994


350.
Crazytown
Butterfly
2001


351.
The Smashing Pumpkins
Rhinoceros
Gish
1991


352.
Josie Cotton
Johnny Are You Queer?
1981


353.
Foo Fighters
Darling Nikki
Have It All
2003


354.
Everclear
Santa Monica
Sparkle And Fade
1995


355.
The Cure
Fascination Street
Disintegration
1989


356.
Soundgarden
Black Hole Sun
Superunknown
1994


357.
Oasis
Live Forever
Definitely Maybe
1995


358.
Fatboy Slim
Praise You
You've Come a Long Way, Baby
1999


359.
Peter Murphy
Cuts You Up
Deep
1990


360.
Linkin Park
Runaway
Hybrid Theory
2001


361.
The Prodigy
Breathe
The Fat Of The Land
1997


362.
U2
With Or Without You
The Joshua Tree
1987


363.
Limp Bizkit w/Method Man
N 2 Gether Now

364.
Nirvana
The Man Who Sold the World
Unplugged in New York
1994


365.
Material Issue
Valerie Loves Me
1991


366.
Green Day
Jesus of Suburbia
American Idiot
2005


367.
No Doubt
Excuse Me Mr.
Tragic Kingdom
1997
Hitchin' a Ride

368.
Depeche Mode
Master and Servant
Some Great Reward
1984


369.
Incubus
Megalomaniac
Crow Left of the Murder
2004


370.
Catherine Wheel
Black Metallic
1992


371.
The Killers
Jenny Was a Friend of Mine
Hot Fuss
2005


372.
Marilyn Manson
Sweet Dreams
Smells Like Children
1996


373.
The Ramones
Beat on the Brat

374.
Radiohead
High and Dry
The Bends
1996


375.
P.O.D.
Alive
Satellite
2001


376.
Jimmy Eat World
Pain
Futures
2004


377.
The Cure
A Letter To Elise
Wish
1992


378.
Puddle of Mudd
Blurry
Come Clean
2001


379.
PJ Harvey
Down By the Water
1995


380.
Trio
Da Da Da
1982


381.
Queens Of The Stone Age
No One Knows
Songs For The Deaf
2002


382.
Bob Marley
One Love


383.
Garbage
#1 Crush
1996


384.
The Strokes
Juicebox
2005


385.
Blink182
Adam's Song
Enema of the State
2000


386.
Grandmaster Flash
White Lines (Don't Do It)
1984


387.
Bad Religion
Sorrow
The Process of Belief
2002


388.
No Doubt
Happy Now?
Tragic Kingdom
1996


389.
The Dead Kennedys
Holiday in Cambodia
Fresh Fruit For Rotting Vegetables
1980


390.
Metallica
One

391.
The Ataris
The Boys of Summer
So Long, Astoria
2003


392.
U2
Where the Streets Have No Name
The Joshua Tree
1987


393.
System of a Down
B.Y.O.B.
Mezmerize
2005


394.
The Smashing Pumpkins
Landslide
1994


395.
Berlin
The Metro
Pleasure Victim
1983

396.
Foo Fighters
Monkey Wrench
The Colour And The Shape


1997
Monkey Wrench

397.
Beastie Boys
She's Crafty
Licensed To Ill
Beastie Boys Licensed to Ill She's Crafty

398.
Primitive Radio Gods
Standing Outside A Broken Phone Booth…
1996


399.
Morrissey
Every Day is Like Sunday
Viva Hate
1988


400.
Green Day
Nice Guys Finish Last
Nimrod
1998


401.
Hole
Doll Parts
Live Through This
1994


402.
Depeche Mode
Everything Counts
Construction Time Again
1984


403.
My Chemical Romance
Helena
Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge
2005


404.
Gorillaz
Clint Eastwood
Gorillaz
2001


405.
Social Distortion
I Was Wrong
White Light White Heat White Trash
1996
Social Distortion White Light, White Heat, White Trash I Was Wrong

406.
Dead Milkmen
Punk Rock Girl

407.
Rage Against the Machine
No Shelter
1998


408.
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Breaking the Girl
Blood Sugar Sex Magik
1992


409.
Johnny Cash
Hurt
2003


410.
The Cure
In Between Days
The Head on the Door
1985


411.
Jane's Addiction
Mountain Song
Nothing's Shocking
1989


412.
Orgy
Blue Monday
Candyass
1999


413.
Nirvana
Polly
Unplugged in New York
1995


414.
Bow Wow Wow
I Want Candy

415.
Beck
Devil's Haircut
Odelay
1996


416.
Godsmack
Voodoo
All Wound Up
2000


417.
Panic! At the Disco
I Write Sins Not Tragedies


418.
New Order
True Faith
Substance
1987


419.
Audioslave
Like A Stone
Audioslave
2003


420.
The Cranberries
Zombie
No Need to Argue
1994


421.
U2
All I Want Is You
Rattle And Hum
1994


422.
Linkin Park
Somewhere I Belong
Meteora
2003


423.
Gnarls Barkley
Crazy

424.
Korn
Falling Away From Me
Issues
1999


425.
Green Day
Wake Me Up When September Ends
American Idiot
2004


426.
Oingo Boingo
Only A Lad
Only a Lad
1983


427.
Beastie Boys
Time To Get Ill
Licensed To Ill
Beastie Boys Licensed to Ill Time to Get Ill

428.
Screaming Trees
Nearly Lost You
1992


429.
The Flying Lizards
Money

430.
Nirvana
Lake of Fire
Unplugged in New York

431.
Garbage
Only Happy When it Rains
Garbage
1996


432.
AFI
Silver and Cold
Sing the Sorrow
2003


433.
Gin Blossoms
Hey Jealousy
New Miserable Experience
1993


434.
Dexy's Midnight Runners
Come On Eileen

435.
Pearl Jam
Dissident
Vs.
1994


436.
Faith No More
We Care A Lot
Introduce Yourself
1987


437.
Cowboy Junkies
Sweet Jane
1994


438.
Talk Talk
It's My Life
It's My Life
1984


439.
Limp Bizkit
Crushed
2000


440.
System of a Down
Hypnotize
Hypnotize
2005


441.
No Doubt
Hella Good
Rock Steady
2002


442.
The Pixies
Here Comes Your Man
Doolittle
1989


443.
Depeche Mode
Never Let Me Down Again
Music For The Masses
1987


444.
Stone Temple Pilots
Dead & Bloated
Core

445.
The Strokes
Someday
Is This It
2002


446.
Live
All Over You
Throwing Copper
1995


447.
The Toyes
Smoke Two Joints


448.
The Used
The Taste of Ink
The Used
2002


449.
Radiohead
Karma Police
OK Computer
1997


450.
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Around the World
Californication
1999


451.
The Vapors
Turning Japanese
New Clear Days
1980


452.
Death Cab For Cutie
Soul Meets Body
Plans
2005


453.
Bush
Little Things
Sixteen Stone
1995


454.
Dave Matthews Band
Crash Into Me
Crash
1997


455.
Beastie Boys
The New Style
Licensed To Ill
Beastie Boys Licensed to Ill The New Style

456.
The Psychedelic Furs
The Ghost In You
Mirror Moves
1984


457.
Nine Inch Nails
Terrible Lie
Pretty Hate Machine

458.
The Lemonheads
Mrs. Robinson
It's A Shame About Ray
1992


459.
The Bravery
An Honest Mistake
The Bravery
2005


460.
U2
I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For
The Joshua Tree
1987


461.
System of a Down
Spiders
System of a Down
2000


462.
Hot Hot Heat
Bandages
Make Up the Breakdown
2003


463.
Moon Zappa
Valley Girl

464.
3 Days Grace
(I Hate) Everything About You
2003


465.
Angels & Airwaves
The Adventure

466.
The Verve
Bittersweet Symphony
Urban Hymns
1997


467.
Talking Heads
Life During Wartime

468.
Pennywise
Bro Hymn

469.
Gorillaz
Dare
Demon Days
2005


470.
Incubus
Stellar
Make Yourself
2000


471.
Julie Brown
The Homecoming Queen's Got a Gun
1984


472.
The Smashing Pumpkins
Tonight, Tonight
Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness
1996


473.
Radiohead
Fake Plastic Trees
The Bends
1995


474.
Green Day
Geek Stink Breath
Insomniac
1995


475.
Eminem
Without Me
The Eminem Show
2002


476.
Rage Against the Machine
People of the Sun
Evil Empire
1996


477.
U2
New Year's Day
War
1983


478.
Coldplay
Speed of Sound
X&Y
2005


479.
Reel Big Fish
Sell Out
1997

480.
Guns N' Roses
Paradise City
Appetite for Destruction

481.
When In Rome
The Promise


482.
Kid Rock
Bawitdaba
Devil Without a Cause
1999


483.
The Smiths
Ask
Louder Than Bombs
1986


484.
Yellowcard
Ocean Avenue
Ocean Avenue
2004


485.
Cypress Hill
Dr. Greenthumb

486.
Blondie
Heart of Glass

487.
Sponge
Plowed
Rotting Piñata
1995


488.
Toto Coelo
I Eat Cannibals
1982


489.
Velvet Revolver
Slither
Contraband
2004


490.
Hole
Violet
Live Through This
1995


491.
Depeche Mode
Policy of Truth
Violator
1990


492.
Gravity Kills
Guilty
Gravity Kills
1996


493.
Weezer
Island In The Sun
Weezer (Green Album)
2001


494.
David Bowie/Queen
Under Pressure
1981


495.
Rob Zombie
Living Dead Girl
Hellbilly Deluxe
1999


496.
The Waitresses
I Know What Boys Like
1981


497.
Afroman
Because I Got High
2001

498.
No Doubt
Underneath it All
Rock Steady
2002

499.
Stone Temple Pilots
Crackerman
Core

500.
Yello
Oh Yeah
1987