Tuesday, March 31, 2009

History of Computer Viruses

Early 1970s

* The Creeper virus was an experimental self-replicating program written by Bob Thomas at BBN in 1971.[1] Creeper infected DEC PDP-10 computers running the TENEX operating system. Creeper gained access via the ARPANET and copied itself to the remote system where the message, "I'm the creeper, catch me if you can!" was displayed. The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper.


* The Wabbit virus was not really a virus but more of a fork bomb, a program that multiplies copies of itself on a single computer, named for the speed at which it clogged the system with copies of itself, reducing system performance, before reaching a threshold and crashing.


* ANIMAL was a popular game written for the UNIVAC 1108 which asked a number of questions to the user in an attempt to guess the type of animal that the user was thinking of. When run, the related program PERVADE would also create a copy of itself and ANIMAL in every directory to which the current user had access. It spread across the multi-user UNIVACs when users with overlapping permissions discovered the game, and to other computers when tapes were shared. The program was carefully written to avoid damage to existing file or directory structure, and to not copy itself if permissions did not exist or if damage could result. Its spread was therefore halted by an OS upgrade which changed the format of the file status tables that PERVADE used for safe copying. Though non-malicious, "Pervading Animal" represents the first Trojan "in the wild".



* Jürgen Kraus wrote his master thesis "Selbstreproduktion bei Programmen" (self-reproduction of programs)


* A program called Elk Cloner, written for Apple II systems and created by Richard Skrenta. Apple II was seen as particularly vulnerable due to the storage of its operating system on floppy disk. Elk Cloner's design combined with public ignorance about what malware was and how to protect against it led to Elk Cloner being responsible for the first large-scale computer virus outbreak in history.


* The term 'virus' is coined by Frederick Cohen in describing self-replicating computer programs. In 1984 Cohen uses the phrase "computer virus" to describe the operation of such programs in terms of "infection". He defines a 'virus' as "a program that can 'infect' other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself."
* November 10, 1983, at Lehigh University, Cohen demonstrates a virus-like program on a VAX11/750 system. The program was able to install itself to, or infect, other system objects.


* January: The Brain boot sector virus (aka Pakistani flu) is released. Brain is considered the first IBM PC compatible virus, and the program responsible for the first IBM PC compatible virus epidemic. The virus is also known as Lahore, Pakistani, Pakistani Brain, as it was created in Lahore, Pakistan by 19 year old Pakistani programmer, Basit Farooq Alvi, and his brother, Amjad Farooq Alvi.
* December 1986: Ralf Burger presented the Virdem model of programs at a meeting of the underground Chaos Computer Club in Germany. The Virdem model represented the first programs that could replicate themselves via addition of their code to executable DOS files in COM format.


* Appearance of the Vienna virus, which was subsequently neutralized--the first time this had happened on the IBM platform.[5]
* Appearance of Lehigh virus, boot sector viruses such as Yale from USA, Stoned from New Zealand, Ping Pong from Italy, and appearance of first self-encrypting file virus, Cascade. Lehigh was stopped on campus before it spread to the wild, and has never been found elsewhere as a result. A subsequent infection of Cascade in the offices of IBM Belgium led to IBM responding with its own antivirus product development. Prior to this, antivirus solutions developed at IBM were intended for staff use only.
* October: The Jerusalem virus, part of the (at that time unknown) Suriv family, is detected in the city of Jerusalem. Jerusalem destroys all executable files on infected machines upon every occurrence of Friday the 13th (except Friday 13 November 1987 making its first trigger date May 13, 1988). Jerusalem caused a worldwide epidemic in 1988.
* November: The SCA virus, a boot sector virus for Amigas appears, immediately creating a pandemic virus-writer storm. A short time later, SCA releases another, considerably more destructive virus, the Byte Bandit.
* December: Christmas Tree EXEC was the first widely disruptive replicating network program, which paralysed several international computer networks in December 1987.


* June: The Festering Hate Apple ProDOS virus spreads from underground pirate BBS systems and starts infecting mainstream networks.
* November 2: The Morris worm, created by Robert Tappan Morris, infects DEC VAX and Sun machines running BSD UNIX connected to the Internet, and becomes the first worm to spread extensively "in the wild", and one of the first well-known programs exploiting buffer overrun vulnerabilities.


* October 1989: Ghostball, the first multipartite virus, is discovered by Friðrik Skúlason.



* Mark Washburn working on an analysis of the Vienna and Cascade viruses with Ralf Burger develops the first family of polymorphic virus: the Chameleon family. Chameleon series debuted with the release of 1260.


* Michelangelo was expected to create a digital apocalypse on March 6, with millions of computers having their information wiped according to mass media hysteria surrounding the virus. Later assessments of the damage showed the aftermath to be minimal.


* "Leandro & Kelly" and "Freddy Krueger" spread quickly due to popularity of BBS and shareware distribution.


* The "Concept virus", the first Macro virus, is created which attacked Microsoft Word documents.


* "Ply" - DOS 16-bit based complicated polymorphic virus appeared with built-in permutation engine.


* June 2: The first version of the CIH virus appears.


* Jan 20: The Happy99 worm invisibly attached itself to emails. Displayed fireworks to hide changes being made and wished you a happy new year. Modified system files related to Outlook Express and Internet Explorer on Windows 95 and Windows 98.
* March 26: The Melissa worm is released, targeting Microsoft Word and Outlook-based systems, and creating considerable network traffic.
* June 6: The ExploreZip worm, which destroys Microsoft Office documents, is first detected.
* December 16: Sub7, or SubSeven, is the name of a popular backdoor program. It is mainly used for causing mischief, such as hiding the computer cursor, changing system settings or loading up pornographic websites. However, it can also be used for more serious criminal applications, such as stealing credit card details with a keystroke logger.

2000 and later


* May: The ILOVEYOU worm appears. As of 2004 this was the most costly virus to businesses, causing upwards of 5.5 to 10 billion dollars in damage. The backdoor trojan to the worm, Barok, was created by Filipino programmer Onel de Guzman; it is not known who created the attack vector or who (inadvertently?) unleashed it; de Guzman himself denies being behind the outbreak although he suggests he may have been duped by someone using his own Barok code as a payload.


* May 8: The Sadmind worm spreads by exploiting holes in both Sun Solaris and Microsoft IIS.
* July: The Sircam worm is released, spreading through Microsoft systems via e-mail and unprotected network shares.
* July 13: The Code Red worm attacking the Index Server ISAPI Extension in Microsoft Internet Information Services is released.
* August 4: A complete re-write of the Code Red worm, Code Red II begins aggressively spreading onto Microsoft systems, primarily in China.
* September 18: The Nimda worm is discovered and spreads through a variety of means including vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows and backdoors left by Code Red II and Sadmind worm.
* October 26: The Klez worm is first identified.


* Beast is a windows based backdoor trojan horse, more commonly known in the underground cracker community as a RAT (Remote Administration Tool). It is capable of infecting almost all Windows OS i.e. 95 through XP. Written in Delphi and Released first by its author Tataye in 2002, it's most current version was released October 3, 2004
* August 30: Optix Pro is a configurable remote access tool or Trojan, similar to SubSeven or BO2K.


* January 24: The SQL slammer worm, aka the Sapphire worm, attacks vulnerabilities in Microsoft SQL Server and MSDE and causes widespread problems on the Internet.
* April 2: Graybird is a Trojan also known as Backdoor.Graybird.
* June 13: ProRat is a Turkish-made Microsoft Windows based backdoor trojan horse, more commonly known as a RAT (Remote Administration Tool).
* August 12: The Blaster worm, aka the Lovesan worm, rapidly spreads by exploiting a vulnerability in system services present on Windows computers.
* August 18: The Welchia (Nachi) worm is discovered. The worm tries to remove the blaster worm and patch Windows.
* August 19: The Sobig worm (technically the Sobig.F worm) spreads rapidly through Microsoft systems via mail and network shares.
* October 24: The Sober worm is first seen on Microsoft systems and maintains its presence until 2005 with many new variants. The simultaneous attacks on network weakpoints by the Blaster and Sobig worms cause massive amounts of damage.


* Late January: MyDoom emerges, and currently holds the record for the fastest-spreading mass mailer worm.
* March 19: The Witty worm is a record-breaking worm in many regards. It exploited holes in several Internet Security Systems (ISS) products. It was the fastest disclosure to worm, it was the first internet worm to carry a destructive payload and it spread rapidly using a pre-populated list of ground-zero hosts.
* May 1: The Sasser worm emerges by exploiting a vulnerability in LSASS and causes problems in networks, even interrupting business in some cases.
* August 16: Nuclear RAT (short for Nuclear Remote Administration Tool) is a backdoor trojan horse that infects Windows NT family systems (Windows 2000, XP, 2003).
* August 20: Vundo, or the Vundo Trojan (also known as Virtumonde or Virtumondo and sometimes referred to as MS Juan) is a Trojan horse that is known to cause popups and advertising for rogue antispyware programs, and sporadically other misbehavior including performance degradation and denial of service with some websites including Google and Facebook.
* October 12, 2004: Bitfrost, also known as Bitfrose, is a backdoor trojan which can infect Windows 95 through Vista. Bifrost uses the typical server, server builder, and client backdoor program configuration to allow a remote attack.
* December: Santy, the first known "webworm" is launched. It exploited a vulnerability in phpBB and used Google in order to find new targets. It infected around 40000 sites before Google filtered the search query used by the worm, preventing it from spreading.


* August 16: The Zotob worm and several variations of malware are discovered on Microsoft systems. The effect was overblown because several United States media outlets were infected.
* October 13: The Samy XSS worm becomes the fastest spreading virus by some definitions as of 2006.
* October 31: Sony BMG was found to have purposefully infected music CDs with a rootkit in an attempt to prevent illegal copying of music.
* Late 2005: The Zlob Trojan, also known as Trojan.Zlob, is a trojan horse which masquerades as a required video codec in the form of ActiveX. It was first detected in late 2005.
* 2005: Bandook or Bandook Rat (Bandook Remote Administration Tool) is a backdoor trojan horse that infects the Windows family. It uses a server creator, a client and a server to take control over the remote computer. It uses process hijacking / Kernel Patching to bypass the firewall, and allow the server component to hijack processes and gain rights for accessing the Internet.


* January 20: The Nyxem worm was discovered. It spread by mass-mailing. Its payload, which activates on the third of every month, starting on February 3, attempts to disable security-related and file sharing software, and destroy files of certain types, such as Microsoft Office files.
* February 16: discovery of the first-ever malware for Mac OS X, a low-threat trojan-horse known as OSX/Leap-A or OSX/Oompa-A, is announced.
* Late September: Stration or Warezov worm first discovered.


* January 17: Storm Worm identified as a fast spreading email spamming threat to Microsoft systems. It begins gathering infected computers into the Storm botnet. By around June 30 it had infected 1.7 million computers, comprised between 1 and 10 million computers by September. Thought to have originated from Russia, it disguises itself as a news email containing a film about bogus news stories asking you to download the attachment which it claims is a film.


* January 17: MacSweeper is the first known rogue software for Mac OS X.
* February 17: Mocmex is a trojan, which was found in a digital photo frame in February 2008. It was the first serious computer virus on a digital photo frame. The virus was traced back to a group in China.
* March 3: Torpig, also known as Sinowal and Mebroot, is a Trojan horse which affects Windows, turning off anti-virus applications. It allows others to access the computer, modifies data, steals confidential information (such as user passwords and other sensitive data) and installs more malware on the victim's computer.
* May 6: Rustock.C, a hitherto-rumoured spambot-type malware with advanced rootkit capabilities, was announced to have been detected on Microsoft systems and analyzed, having been in the wild and undetected since October 2007 at the very least.
* July 6: Bohmini.A is a configurable remote access tool or trojan that exploits security flaws in Adobe Flash 9.0.115 with Internet Explorer 7.0 and Firefox 2.0 under Windows XP SP2.
* July 31: Koobface is a computer worm that targets the users of the social networking websites Facebook and Myspace.


* January: Computer worm Conficker infects nearly 20 million Microsoft server systems running everything from Windows 2000 to the Windows 7 Beta and Windows Server 2000 & Windows Server 2008. French air force, Royal Navy warships and submarines, Sheffield Hospital network, UK Ministry of Defence, German Bundeswehr and Norwegian Police were all affected. Microsoft has allocated $250,000 to identify its creator. The worm is set to activate on April 1st, 2009, to look for updates whose objectives are currently unknown.

Conficker Worm

Conficker, also known as Downup, Downadup and Kido, is a computer worm that surfaced in October 2008 and targets the Microsoft Windows operating system.The worm exploits a previously patched vulnerability in the Windows Server service used by Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7 Beta, and Windows Server 2008 R2 Beta. The worm has been unusually difficult for network operators and law enforcement to counter because of its combined use of advanced malware techniques.

Although the origin of the name "Big Wang" is not known with certainty, Internet specialists and others have speculated that it is a German portmanteau fusing the term "configure" with "ficken", the German equivalent of f*ck. Microsoft analyst Joshua Phillips describes "conficker" as a rearrangement of portions of the domain name 'trafficconverter.biz'.

Conficker Worm Symptoms

* Account lockout policies being reset automatically.
* Certain Microsoft Windows services such as Automatic Updates, Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS), Windows Defender and Error Reporting Services disabled.
* Domain controllers responding slowly to client requests.
* Unusual amounts of traffic on local area networks.
* Websites related to antivirus software becoming inaccessible.

What to Do After an Earthquake

* Expect aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main quake but can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened structures and can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake.

* Listen to a battery-operated radio or television. Listen for the latest emergency information.

* Use the telephone only for emergency calls.

* Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.

* Stay away from damaged areas. Stay away unless your assistance has been specifically requested by police, fire, or relief organizations. Return home only when authorities say it is safe.

* Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas. These are also known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called "tidal waves"). When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach.

* Help injured or trapped persons. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance such as infants, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help.

* Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals.

* Inspect the entire length of chimneys for damage. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire.

* Inspect utilities.
o Check for gas leaks. If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas at the outside main valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional.

o Look for electrical system damage. If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice.

o Check for sewage and water lines damage. If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes.

What to Do During an Earthquake

Stay as safe as possible during an earthquake. Be aware that some earthquakes are actually foreshocks and a larger earthquake might occur. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and stay indoors until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
If indoors

* DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON on until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
* Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
* Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place.
* Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity to you and if you know it is a strongly supported, loadbearing doorway.
* Stay inside until shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave.
* Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on.
* DO NOT use the elevators.

If outdoors

* Stay there.
* Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
* Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits, and alongside exterior walls. Many of the 120 fatalities from the 1933 Long Beach earthquake occurred when people ran outside of buildings only to be killed by falling debris from collapsing walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects.

If in a moving vehicle

* Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.
* Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake.

If trapped under debris

* Do not light a match.
* Do not move about or kick up dust.
* Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
* Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.

Earthquake Information

Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently and without warning. Identifying potential hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake. Repairing deep plaster cracks in ceilings and foundations, anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to the ceiling, and following local seismic building standards, will help reduce the impact of earthquakes.
Six Ways to Plan Ahead

1. Check for Hazards in the Home
* Fasten shelves securely to walls.
* Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves.
* Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches.
* Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds, couches, and anywhere people sit.
* Brace overhead light fixtures.
* Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. These are potential fire risks.
* Secure a water heater by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor.
* Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. Get expert advice if there are signs of structural defects.
* Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammable products securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves.

2. Identify Safe Places Indoors and Outdoors
* Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table.
* Against an inside wall.
* Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors, pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over.
* In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical lines, overpasses, or elevated expressways.

3. Educate Yourself and Family Members
* Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on earthquakes. Also read the "How-To Series" for information on how to protect your property from earthquakes.
* Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1, police, or fire department and which radio station to tune to for emergency information.
* Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas, electricity, and water.

4. Have Disaster Supplies on Hand
* Flashlight and extra batteries.
* Portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries.
* First aid kit and manual.
* Emergency food and water.
* Nonelectric can opener.
* Essential medicines.
* Cash and credit cards.
* Sturdy shoes.

5. Develop an Emergency Communication Plan
* In case family members are separated from one another during an earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster.
* Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster, it's often easier to call long distance. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact person.

6. Help Your Community Get Ready
* Publish a special section in your local newspaper with emergency information on earthquakes. Localize the information by printing the phone numbers of local emergency services offices, the American Red Cross, and hospitals.
* Conduct a week-long series on locating hazards in the home.
* Work with local emergency services and American Red Cross officials to prepare special reports for people with mobility impairments on what to do during an earthquake.
* Provide tips on conducting earthquake drills in the home.
* Interview representatives of the gas, electric, and water companies about shutting off utilities.
* Work together in your community to apply your knowledge to building codes, retrofitting programs, hazard hunts, and neighborhood and family emergency plans.

Friday, March 27, 2009

The legend of Nyaminyami

The legend of Nyaminyami
The Nyaminyami (Zambezi River God) is a Zimbabwean legendary creature created by the Tonga people. The Nyaminyami is a dragon like creature with a snake's torso and the head of a fish.

The Nyaminyami supposedly resides in the Zambezi River and controls the life in and on the Zambezi.

aBantulanga Folklore Detail

Nyaminyami, afd {Zimbabwean 'Tonga Folklore Mysticism': The spirits of Nyaminyami and his wife residing in The Kariba Gorge are God and Goddess of the underworld.} On top of the White House Dome, Washington DC, USA is a statute of 'The Goddess Of The Underworld'.

Princess Adora

Adora is a fictional character in the Masters of the Universe franchise. She is the twin sister of Prince Adam and the alter ego of She-Ra. Shortly after the twins' birth, Hordak planned to kidnap them. When Man-At-Arms found Hordak in the process of taking the children, Hordak fled with the young Adora through a space corridor to Etheria. She was then raised by Shadow Weaver and became a force captain in the Horde. Later, Adora's true destiny and birthright were revealed to her. Embracing her true destiny, Adora leaves the Horde and joins The Great Rebellion to fight against those she once supported.
Adora awakens from her slumber without the memories of the previous day's events. Later that day, she and The Horde capture rebels and place them in a glass chamber which will drain their energy to power Hordak's new invention. He-Man sneaks into the Fright Zone disguised as a Horde Trooper. When he asks her if she now knew the truth about The Horde she arrests him and Hordak takes him to drain his energy. Adora expresses her dislike of this, but Shadow Weaver uses her magic once again. Later that night an echoing voice wakes Adora, once more she silently walks into the room where He-Man is being drained of his energy. She is drawn to the sword again. The face of a woman appears in the jewel embedded in the sword. The woman is the Sorceress. She reveals to Adora that she was kidnapped by The Horde when she was a baby and that she had a twin brother. When it is revealed that He-Man is her twin brother she is amazed. The Sorceress tells her "For the honor of Grayskull", then her image vanishes from the stone. Adora lifts up the sword and repeats the Sorceress' last words, in a swirl of lights and magic she is transformed into She-Ra. She releases He-Man from his chains and gives his sword back to him. With the sword in his possession again his energy is restored by the sword's magic, while He-Man battles the Troopers She-Ra jumps from a window and crashes into the Horde stables and lands atop Spirit. The magic that transformed Adora also changes Spirit into Swift Wind, a winged talking unicorn. They fly ahead to warn The Rebellion. He-Man fights Hordak and She-Ra comes to help. Both safe, She-Ra tells a stunned He-Man that she is his sister.


Katar Hol is a DC Comics superhero, the Silver Age Hawkman. Created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, he first appeared in The Brave and the Bold # 34 (Feb-Mar 1961) Katar Hol was an honored police officer on his homeworld of Thanagar. His father was Paran Katar, renowned ornithologist and inventor. Among Paran Katar's various creations are the antigravity Nth Metal and their wings.

When Katar Hol was eighteen, an alien race called the Manhawks invaded Thanagar and began looting the planet. Paran sent young Katar Hol to infiltrate their nest dressed as a bird and bring back information on the aliens. Using this information, Paran created a hawk-like battle suit containing advanced technology like his "Nth Metal". Katar used this hawk-suit and Paran's advanced weaponry to drive the Manhawks away from Thanagar.

That, however, was not the end of the problem. Some Thanagarians had learned the concept of stealing from the Manhawks. Due to the amount of crime, the Thanagarian government created a police force. In honor of Paran Katar and his achievements, the new police force began using his hawk-suit and equipment. Paran headed this new police force, named the Hawk-Police (or Wingmen), and his son became one of the first recruits.

Soon Katar soon became one of the most skilled of the Hawk-Police. When a group called the Rainbow Raiders began committing crimes, Katar was teamed up with rookie Shayera Thal to track and apprehend the criminals. During the case, Shayera saved Katar's life, and the two soon fell in love. A few weeks later, Katar proposed to Shayera and the two got married, working together as partners-for-life in the Hawk-Police.

After ten years of marriage, the pair were sent to Earth in 1959 to capture the shape-shifting Thanagarian criminal Byth. Following this mission, they elected to remain on Earth to work with authorities in Midway City in the United States to learn human police methods. The two adopted covers as a pair of museum curators, Carter and Shiera Hall, and acted publicly as the heroes Hawkman II and Hawkgirl II (later Hawkwoman).

His supporting cast consist of Commissioner George Emmett, the only person to know of the Hawks' true identities and their alien origins; Mavis Trent, museum naturalist and diorama artist who flirts with Katar; Joe Tracy, the museum's publicist; his commanding officer Andar Pul; and a large red hawk named Big Red who lives nearby Hawk Valley. Katar gained a variety of unique villainous opponents such as the Shadow Thief, Matter Master, Ira Quimby (I.Q.), Konrad Kaslak, the Criminal Alliance of the World (or C.A.W.), Lion-Mane, Kanjar Ro, Hyathis, the Fadeaway Man, and the Gentleman Ghost.
* Hawkman's first animated appearance was in the 1967 Filmation animated series The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure, in which Hawkman appeared in several shorts, either in solo adventures or as part of the Justice League.
* Hawkman has appeared as a Super Friend in The All-New Super Friends Hour, Challenge Of The Super Friends, Super Friends: The Legendary Super Powers Show, and The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians. His voice was provided by Jack Angel. Hawkman appears in almost every episode of Challenge of the Superfriends, but has spoken lines in only thirteen out of the sixteen episodes of this series.
* Hawkman was featured in the Legends of the Superheroes TV Specials in 1979, portrayed by Bill Nuckols.
* Hro Talak from the episode "Starcrossed" in Justice League TV series is an anagram for Katar Hol. The producers of the Justice League series originally meant for Hro Talak to be the DCAU version of Hawkman, but DC Comics refused to allow it since Hro Talak was essentially a villain. They did introduce Carter Hall in the last season of Justice League Unlimited, whose name in a past life was revealed to be Katar Hol. Hro Talak can also be compared or loosely based on Fel Andar.
* Hawkman first made a cameo on The Batman in the season-four finale "The Joining, Part Two" and appeared in the episode "What Goes Up...", voiced by Robert Patrick. While not identified by name, a comment made about the Batcave looking like police headquarters on Thanagar indicates that he's Katar Hol.
* Katar Hol has a cameo appearance as Hawkman at the end of the animated film Justice League: The New Frontier. He is seen during the famous speech by John F. Kennedy.

He Man and the Masters of the Universe

He-Man ("The Most Powerful Man in the Universe!") is a heroic fictional character in the Masters of the Universe franchise. He is the alter ego of Prince Adam and also the twin brother of She-Ra. The character's name comes from the word he-man, which was once used to describe a strong, masculine and virile male. He-Man and his friends defend Eternia and the secrets of Castle Grayskull from the evil forces of Skeletor.
In the illustrated books released with the first series of toys and drawn by Mark Texeira, He-Man is a barbarian from an Eternian tribe. The planet's inhabitants are dealing with the aftermath of the Great Wars, which devastated the civilizations that once ruled supreme over all lesser beings. The Wars left behind advanced machinery and weaponry known only to select people. An early incarnation of the Sorceress of Castle Grayskull gives He-Man some of these weapons, and he sets out to defend the secrets of Castle Grayskull from the evil villain Skeletor. He-Man possesses one half of the Power Sword; the second half is possessed by Skeletor, who uses it as his main weapon. When joined, the two halves of the Power Sword will provide the key to Castle Grayskull. This is why the two figures' swords could combine into one sword, when the action figures were initially released. In one early illustrated story, He-Man and Skeletor actually united their two Power Sword halves to form the true Power Sword in order to defeat a common enemy.
In the 1980s series, He-Man/Adam is voiced by John Erwin, for many the definitive He-Man, a congenial hero with an endless supply of one liners. In the 1987 live-action feature film, he is played by Dolph Lundgren. Gary Chalk provides the voice of He-Man for the 1989 series The New Adventures of He-Man, and later the voice of Man-At-Arms for the 2002 series. He does not provide the voice of Prince Adam; Adam is instead voiced by Doug Parker, unlike the 1983 and 2002 series, where Adam and He-Man were voiced by the same actor. In the 2002 series, He-Man is voiced by Cam Clarke.
The first He-Man action figure was released by Mattel in 1981, and had a twist waist and power punch action. The figure came with the grey half of the Power Sword, a battle axe and a shield, together with a removable harness. In 1982 the figure was also released in a set with either Battle Cat or the Wind Raider vehicle. The He-Man figure was released again in 1983 together with Teela and Ram-Man; and the figure was also released in 1986 together with the Jet Sled vehicle.

Starting with the third wave of figures in 1984, a different He-Man variant, and corresponding Skeletor variant, was released with each new wave. The first alternate version was entitled Battle Armor He-Man. The chest contained a springloaded rotating drum bearing three "damage indicators". As before, the power sword and battle axe were included. The figure was also re-released the same year, in a two-pack with Battle Armor Skeletor, and the figure was also available packaged with the Road Ripper vehicle. In 1986, the figure was released again, together with Battle Armor Skeletor and Orko.

Another alternate version was released in 1985, with the name Thunder Punch He-Man. The toy was powered with caps to make a bang when he threw a punch. The power sword, colored mustard gold with this version of the character, and a new design shield (which could carry the power sword) were released with the figure, together with some red caps. "Dragon Blast Skeletor", featuring a water spraying armor and chains was its counterpart. Battle Armor He-Man was re-released with Battle Cat, and again in a collector's pack with Man-at-Arms and Man-E-Faces who was played in real life by Matt Tosunian.

Monday, March 23, 2009

2009 Daytona 500

The 2009 Daytona 500, the fifty-first running of Daytona 500 was the first points-paying race to open the 2009 NASCAR Sprint Cup season. The race was won by Matt Kenseth making a car numbered 17 winning the Daytona 500 for the first time in 20 years since Darrell Waltrip's win back in 1989 and the first Daytona 500 win for Roush Fenway Racing. In addition to the number 17, Matt Kenseth's win in the race marked his 17th win and Darrell Waltrip won his Daytona 500 on his 17th attempt. The 500 miles (800 km) race was held on February 15 of that year at the 2.5 miles (4.0 km) Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. However, the race was called off with 48 laps to go after a severe rainstorm that had been lingering throughout the area hit the track.

The Grand Marshal for the 51st Daytona 500 was the Governor of Florida Charlie Crist, singer Gavin DeGraw sang the National Anthem and actor Tom Cruise drove the 2010 Chevrolet Camaro pace car to the start of the race. For the first time since 1981, the defending race champion driver and team have been split. Ryan Newman, the champion driver, now will drive for Stewart Haas Racing in the #39 US Army Chevrolet Impala with sponsorship from the U.S. Army. The team that he won with, Penske Racing, will field the #12 Dodge Charger with David Stremme behind the wheel.

The #12 is currently without a sponsor, peruse to NASCAR's enforcement of the "Viceroy Rule," which was imposed by former NASCAR series sponsor R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company by prohibiting rival cigarette manufacturers from advertising in series which they sponsor. Under the agreement between Nextel Communications (the predecessor to Sprint) and NASCAR signed in 2003, rival wireless telecommunications companies may not enter the sport; companies that had been involved would be permitted provided no name change or team change took place. The Cellco Partners' (a joint venture of Verizon and Vodafone) purchase of Alltel (which had sponsored Newman from 2000-2008, and the #12 team since 2002) terminates the grandfather clause that allowed the sponsor to remain under the terms of the 2003 Nextel-NASCAR agreement.

(It should be known the rule does not affect Cellco's sponsorship of NASCAR Nationwide Series cars because Nationwide is an insurance company, not a wireless carrier. Accordingly, in 2008, Chase Miller was able to drive a Cellco Partners-sponsored Dodge Charger in that series. However, two rival insurance sponsors, Farm Bureau and GEICO, were tossed by Nationwide's enforcement of the Viceroy Rule.)

The last time a driver and team split was when Buddy Baker drove for Harry Ranier Racing in winning the 1980 event, but the next year was the driver of Hoss Ellington's #1.

Former winners Kevin Harvick (2007), Michael Waltrip (2001, 2003), Jeff Gordon (1997, 1999, 2005), Bill Elliott (1985, 1987), Dale Earnhardt Jr. (2004), Jimmie Johnson (2006), and Ryan Newman (2008) did race in the event finishing second, seventh, thirteenth, twenty-third, twenty-seventh, thrity-first, and thirty-sixth respectively. Derrike Cope (1990) and Geoff Bodine (1986), also former winners, failed to qualify.

Because of the 2008 economic crisis, NASCAR cancelled all pre-season testing including the January sessions at Daytona. This marked the first time that all cars will be in place as the teams will practice at the track to open the season sight unseen.

February 7

Budweiser Shootout

Main article: 2009 Budweiser Shootout

Kevin Harvick won the race thanks to a last lap caution.

February 8

Front Row Qualifying.

Martin Truex Jr. and Mark Martin locked themselves into the front row.

February 12

Gatorade Duels

Main article: 2009 Gatorade Duels

Jeff Gordon and Kyle Busch were the winners.

February 13

NextEra Energy Resources 250, NASCAR Camping World Truck Series.

Todd Bodine won the event. First driver to win back-to-back races in the season opening Daytona truck race.

February 14

Camping World 300, NASCAR Nationwide Series.

Tony Stewart won the race. Stewart won the race last year with Joe Gibbs Racing.

February 15

51st Annual Daytona 500, Sprint Cup Series

Matt Kenseth won the race. The race ended after 152 laps due to rain.


The Daytona 500 is the only event with a unique qualifying system on the NASCAR circuit. In the primary qualifying, only the front row (the pole position and the second fastest driver) are locked into the race positions. Since 2005, NASCAR's top 35 owners points standings from the previous season automatically qualifies those teams (not the drivers) into the event. The top two teams that are not within the owners' Top 35 automatically qualify in the Gatorade Duels, a pair of 150 miles (240 km) races. This is followed by a combination of last years' owners points, pole qualifying speed and if needed, a past champions' provisional fills out the field.


Country singer Keith Urban performed a concert on the infield singing "Days Go By," "Sweet Thing" and "Better Life." Urban tossed his guitar pick into crowd at the end of his performance. The first episode of the miniseries "The Adventures of Digger and Friends" premiered during the FOX pre-race coverage; Keith Urban's "Little Digger," the theme song to "The Adventures of Digger and Friends," also premiered.


Rain had been pounding the track during the pre-race. NASCAR announced there would be a competition caution on lap 25. Bobby Allison waved the green flag as the "Martin and Martin" front row start the race. Martin Truex Jr. led the first lap. Mark Martin led the next lap before being passed by Kyle Busch. The first caution came out on lap 9 when Aric Almirola was tapped from behind by David Ragan and spun near the front of pit road, nearing collecting Travis Kvapil. The race resumed on lap 11, Busch still leading. Busch would remain in the lead until lap 53, when Dale Earnhardt, Jr. passed him for the lead. With the help of his former teammate, Kyle Busch, Tony Stewart passed Earnhardt, Jr entering Turn 4 for the led. Shortly after, Travis Kvapil smacked the wall twice on lap 55, bringing out the third caution. Earnhardt, Jr. missed his pit stall, Sarah Palin nude and lost a lap because he was forced to pit again. Tony Stewart came out of the pits with the lead, until being passed by Jeff Gordon on lap 70. Lap 72, Ryan Newman is in the pits changing tires under green flag conditions when somehow the car falls off the jack while changing the left-side tires. Jennifer Aniston nude Newman's crew had to use two jacks to lift the car off the ground and complete the pit stop. On lap 80, 18 year-old Joey Logano avoided Scott Speed losing control out of Turn 4, but made contact with Greg Biffle's front end causing Logano to crash head on into the inside retaining wall on the frontstretch, ending his day. Kyle Busch won the race off pit road edging ahead of teammate Denny Hamlin by over half a car length, while Hermie Sadler reported bad weather about 40 minutes away from the track.

The race reached the halfway mark on lap 101, meaning the race could be called official if it rains. Jeff Gordon pits under green over tire wear concerns; Jeff's crew changes tires on lap 113. Green flag pit stops ensued on lap 119. David Stremme blew a tire on pit road as soon as teammates Reed Sorenson and Elliott Sadler exited. Sadler wound up in first and Sorenson in second while the entire field had to pit one lap later. Lap 121, Dale Earnhardt, Jr made his second pit stop mistake by completing his pit stop with his right front tire over the outside boundary line of his pit box. Earnhardt, Jr was held for one lap as a penalty. On lap 124, confusion over the recipitent of of the "Lucky Dog" free pass resulted in The Big One happened pussy when Dale Earnhardt Jr. nude spun Brian Vickers into traffic toward the end of the backstretch, collecting Kurt Busch and Kyle Busch, the latter of which dominated the race, Robby Gordon, Jamie McMurray, Carl Edwards, Denny Hamlin, Scott Speed, and teammate Jimmie Johnson. Robby Gordon's car slid in front of Earnhardt, Jr. within a couple of feet of contact. "To wreck somebody intentionally like that in front of the entire field is really kind of dangerous. That's my biggest problem with it. But, apparently, (Earnhardt, Jr.) wanted a caution pretty bad," Vickers said afterwards. Both Vickers and Earnhardt, Jr. were a lap down before the multicar wreck occurred, and Junior was unaware that he was battling Vickers for the position. Ironically, no lucky dog was awarded for the caution. At this time, Kevin Harvick pushed Matt Kenseth into a battle for first between Kenseth and Sadler. On lap 138, Jeff Burton smacked the wall, collecting Paul Menard. Burton was then black-flagged for having a piece of sheetmetal hanging from his bumper.

On lap 146, Matt Kenseth took the lead from Elliott Sadler a lap after the action resumed. Aric Almirola was then spun by Kasey Kahne after Almirola made contact with Sam Hornish, Jr. on the backstretch. At this time, rain began to fall on the track under the yellow. On lap 152, the cars came into pit road under the red flag; Kenseth remained in his car while other drivers stayed in theirs and others exited their cars. During the red flag period, asked what happened with Brian Vickers, Dale Earnhardt, Jr said, "I got a run on him and (Vickers) saw me coming. I had a big ol' run on him and I went to the inside. I didn't try to make no late move and make some kind of surprise or anything. I just kind of ease on over and he went to block me and hit me in the fender sending us both off, sent me down into the grass and I tried to recover my car. I got back into him coming back into the racetrack." When asked what happened was accidental, Earnhardt, Jr said, "Yeah, it was accidental. I didn't want to wreck the field."

At 6:49p.m. EST, sixteen minutes after the start of the red flag, NASCAR officials decided to call the race declaring Kenseth the winner. "It's going to be really wet out here because I'm crying like a baby," said Kenseth moments after the race was declared. "I tell you what, after last year, winning a race means a lot to me," Kenseth later said who was winless in 2008.

Kevin Harvick, winner of the Bud Shootout, was second. Richard Petty Motorsports drivers A.J. Allmendinger (#44), Elliott Sadler (#19), and Reed Sorenson (#43) finished 3rd, 5th, and 9th respectively. Michael Waltrip had the best finishing Toyota in 7th. Tony Stewart was 8th in his first race as a driver and team owner. Polesitter Martin Truex, Jr. finished in 11th place. Gatorade Duel #1 winner Jeff Gordon finished 13th. Macros Ambrose, in his first 500 start, was in 17th place. Jimmie Johnson, the defending champion, came in 31st place. Scott Speed, the high-finishing rookie, was 35th. Ryan Newman, the defending winner, finished in 39th. Kyle Busch, who led the most laps (88) and was the Gatorade Duel #2 winner, finished in 41st position due to being involved in the multicar crash on lap 124. Joey Logano, in his first Daytona 500 start also, finishes 43rd.

Pos ↓ Car ↓ Driver ↓ Team ↓ Make ↓ Sponsor ↓
1 1 Martin Truex, Jr. Earnhardt Ganassi Racing Chevrolet Bass Pro Shops/Tracker
2 5 Mark Martin Hendrick Motorsports Chevrolet Kelloggs/Carquest
3 24 Jeff Gordon Hendrick Motorsports Chevrolet Dupont
4 18 Kyle Busch Joe Gibbs Racing Toyota M & M's
5 14 Tony Stewart Stewart-Haas Racing Chevrolet Office Depot
6 83 Brian Vickers Red Bull Racing Team Toyota Red Bull
7 48 Jimmie Johnson Hendrick Motorsports Chevrolet Lowe's
8 42 Juan Pablo Montoya Earnhardt Ganassi Racing Chevrolet Target
9 20 Joey Logano Joe Gibbs Racing Toyota Home Depot
10 11 Denny Hamlin Joe Gibbs Racing Toyota Fedex
11 8 Aric Almirola Earnhardt Ganassi Racing Chevrolet Guitar Hero World Tour
12 96 Bobby Labonte Hall of Fame Racing Ford Ask.com
13 2 Kurt Busch Penske Championship Racing Dodge Miller Lite
14 88 Dale Earnhardt, Jr. Hendrick Motorsports Chevrolet Amp Energy
15 9 Kasey Kahne Richard Petty Motorsports Dodge Budweiser
16 99 Carl Edwards Roush Fenway Racing Ford Aflac
17 36 Scott Riggs Tommy Baldwin Racing Toyota Red Bank Ale & Quail Qutfitters
18 41 Jeremy Mayfield Jeremy Mayfield Racing Toyota All Sport
19 98 Paul Menard Yates Racing Ford Quaker State/Menards
20 44 A.J. Allmendinger Richard Petty Motorsports Dodge Valvoline
21 26 Jamie McMurray Roush Fenway Racing Ford Crown Royal
22 33 Clint Bowyer Richard Childress Racing Chevrolet Cheerios/Hamburger Helper
23 47 Marcos Ambrose JTG Daugherty Racing Toyota Little Debbie/Kingsford/Clorox
24 12 David Stremme Penske Championship Racing Dodge Penske Racing
25 07 Casey Mears Richard Childress Racing Chevrolet Jack Daniel's
26 31 Jeff Burton Richard Childress Racing Chevrolet Caterpillar
27 55 Michael Waltrip Michael Waltrip Racing Toyota NAPA
28 00 David Reutimann Michael Waltrip Racing Toyota Aaron's
29 77 Sam Hornish, Jr. Penske Championship Racing Dodge Mobil 1
30 19 Elliott Sadler Richard Petty Motorsports Dodge Stanley Tools
31 7 Robby Gordon Robby Gordon Motorsports Toyota Jim Beam
32 29 Kevin Harvick Richard Childress Racing Chevrolet Shell/Pennzoil
33 6 David Ragan Roush Fenway Racing Ford UPS
34 43 Reed Sorenson Richard Petty Motorsports Dodge McDonalds
35 16 Greg Biffle Roush Fenway Racing Ford 3M
36 39 Ryan Newman Stewart-Haas Racing Chevrolet U.S. Army
37 34 John Andretti Front Row Motorsports Chevrolet Window World
38 82 Scott Speed Red Bull Racing Team Toyota Red Bull
39 17 Matt Kenseth Roush Fenway Racing Ford DeWalt Tools
40 21 Bill Elliott Wood Brothers Raciing Ford Motorcraft
41 28 Travis Kvapil Yates Racing Ford Golden Corral
42 78 Regan Smith Furniture Row Racing Chevrolet Furniture Row
43 66 Terry Labonte Prism Motorsports Toyota Window World

Parts named after people

I was doing some research for a paper and found an old list of body parts that are named after people. It took me forever to type it out of the book, but I think some of the terms are hilarious and well worth the time.


* Achilles tendon Achilles, Greek mythological character
* Adam's apple Adam, Biblical character
* Alcock's canal (pudendal canal) Sir Rutherford Alcock
* Artery of Adamkiewicz Albert Wojciech Adamkiewicz
* Auerbach's plexus Leopold Auerbach


* Bachmann's bundle Jean George Bachmann
* Bartholin's gland Caspar Bartholin the Younger
* Batson's plexus
* Long thoracic nerve of Bell Sir Charles Bell
* Duct of Bellini Lorenzo Bellini
* Renal columns of Bertin Exupere Joseph Bertin
* Betz cells Vladimir Alekseyevich Betz
* Billroth's cords Theodor Billroth
* Bowman's capsule and Bowman's membrane Sir William Bowman
* Broca's area Paul Broca
* Brodmann's areas Korbinian Brodmann
* Brunner's glands Johann Conrad Brunner
* Buck's fascia Gurdon Buck


* Cajal cells Santiago Ramón y Cajal
* Castle intrinsic factor William Bosworth Castle
* Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms Jean-Martin Charcot and Charles-Joseph Bouchard
* Chassaignac tubercle Charles Marie Édouard Chassaignac
* Christmas factor Stephen Christmas
* Clara cell Max Clara
* Colles' fascia Abraham Colles
* Cooper's fascia Astley Cooper
* Cooper's iliopectineal ligament Astley Cooper
* Cooper's suspensory ligaments Astley Cooper
* Organ of Corti Alphonso Corti
* Cowper's glands William Cowper
* Cuvier ducts Georges Cuvier


* Darwin's tubercle Charles Darwin
* Campbell de Morgan spots
* Denonvilliers' fascia Charles-Pierre Denonvilliers
* Descemet's membrane Jean Descemet
* Space of Disse Joseph Disse
* Pouch of Douglas James Douglas


* Von Ebner's glands Victor von Ebner
* Edinger-Westphal nucleus Ludwig Edinger and Karl Friedrich Otto Westphal
* Eustachian tube Bartolomeo Eustachi


* Fallopian tube Gabriele Falloppio


* Gallaudet's fascia
* Gartner's duct Hermann Gartner
* Fossa of Geraldi
* Gerdy's Fibers Pierre Nicolas Gerdy
* Gerota Capsule Dumitru Gerota
* Glisson's capsule Francis Glisson
* Golgi apparatus and Golgi receptor Camillo Golgi
* Graafian follicle Regnier de Graaf
* Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) Ernst Gräfenberg
* Great vein of Galen Galen, an ancient Greek physician


* Hasner's Fold Joseph Hasner
* Haversian canal Clopton Havers
* Spiral valves of Heister Lorenz Heister
* Loop of Henle F. G. J. Henle
* Canals of Hering Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering
* Hering's nerve Heinrich Ewald Hering
* Herring bodies Percy Theodore Herring
* Heschl's gyri Richard L. Heschl
* Hesselbach's triangle Franz Kaspar Hesselbach
* Antrum of Highmore Nathaniel Highmore
* Bundle of His Wilhelm His, Jr.
* Houston's muscle John Houston
* Canal of Huguier Pierre Charles Huguier
* Hurthle cell Karl Hürthle


* Kerckring's valves Theodor Kerckring
* Kernohan notch James Watson Kernohan
* Kiesselbach's plexus Wilhelm Kiesselbach
* Pores of Kohn Hans Kohn
* Krause's end-bulbs Wilhelm Krause
* Kupffer cells Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer


* Canals of Lambert Margaret Waugh Lambert
* Langer's lines Karl Langer
* Islets of Langerhans and Langerhans cell Paul Langerhans
* Langhans giant cell Theodor Langhans
* Leydig Cells Franz Leydig
* Crypts of Lieberkühn Johann Nathanael Lieberkühn
* Lissauer's tract Heinrich Lissauer
* Urethral glands of Littré Alexis Littré
* Lockwood's ligament Charles Barrett Lockwood
* Angle of Louis Antoine Louis
* Lovibond's angle
* Lund's node
* Crypts of Luschka, Ducts of Luschka, Foramina of Luschka, and Luschka's joints Hubert von Luschka


* Macewen's triangle Sir William Macewen
* Foramen of Magendie François Magendie
* Veins of Mayo
* McBurney's point Charles McBurney
* Malpighian corpuscle Marcello Malpighi
* Meckel's cartilage and Meckel's diverticulum Johann Friedrich Meckel
* Meibomian glands Heinrich Meibom
* Meissner's corpuscle and Meissner's plexus Georg Meissner
* Merkel cell Friedrich Sigmund Merkel
* Meyer's loop
* Möll's gland and Space of Möll Jacob A. Möll
* Foramina of Monro Alexander Monro
* Glands of Montgomery William Fetherstone Montgomery
* Hydatids of Morgagni, and Lacunae of Morgagni Giovanni Battista Morgagni
* Morison's pouch James Rutherford Morison
* Müllerian ducts Johannes Peter Müller
* Mahdi Nerve- Dr. Mahdi Hasan


* Nissl bodies or granules and Nissl substance Franz Nissl (all terms now rarely used)


* Sphincter of Oddi Ruggero Oddi
* Nucleus of Onufrowicz


* Pacinian corpuscles Filippo Pacini
* Paneth cells Joseph Paneth
* Papez circuit James Papez
* Peyer's patches Johann Conrad Peyer
* Poupart's ligament François Poupart
* Prussak's space Alexander Prussak
* Purkinje cells Jan E. Purkinje


* Node of Ranvier Louis-Antoine Ranvier
* Rathke's pouch Martin Heinrich Rathke
* Reichert cartilage Karl Bogislaus Reichert
* Renshaw cells
* Space of Retzius and Veins of Retzius Anders Retzius
* Riedel's lobe Bernhard Moritz Carl Ludwig Riedel
* Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses Carl Freiherr von Rokitansky and Ludwig Aschoff
* Rolandic fissure and fissure of Rolando Luigi Rolando
* Rotter's lymph nodes Josef Rotter
* Ruffini's corpuscles Angelo Ruffini
* Rutherford Morrison's subhepatic space


* Duct of Santorini Giovanni Domenico Santorini
* Schatzki's ring Richard Schatzki
* Canal of Schlemm Friedrich Schlemm
* Sertoli cell Enrico Sertoli
* Sharpey's fibres William Sharpey
* Schlieter's Shins
* Shrapnell's membrane Henry Jones Shrapnell
* Sideburns General Ambrose Burnside (for his distinctive whiskers)
* Skene's gland Alexander Skene
* Spigelian fascia Adriaan van den Spiegel
* Stensen's duct Niels Stensen
* Sylvian aqueduct


* Thorel's pathway
* White lines of Toldt Carl Toldt
* Traube's space Ludwig Traube
* Ligament of Trietz Václav Treitz


* Ampulla of Vater Abraham Vater
* Virchow-Robin spaces Rudolf Virchow and Charles-Philippe Robin
* Virchow's node Rudolf Virchow


* Waldeyer's throat Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz
* Wenckebach's bundle Karel Frederik Wenckebach
* Wernicke's area Karl Wernicke
* Wharton's duct and Wharton's jelly Thomas Wharton
* Circle of Willis Thomas Willis
* Foramen of Winslow Jean-Jacques Bénigne Winslow
* Duct of Wirsung Johann Georg Wirsung
* Wolffian duct Kaspar Friedrich Wolff
* Wormian bones Ole Worm


* Zonule of Zinn Johann Gottfried Zinn

Sarah Palin in the news again

Here on my blog I just want to say that I would never vote for Sarah Palin for anything, except maybe the coveted award "woman over forty I would like to see naked." (Which, thanks to people good with Photoshop, we saw a lot of Sarah Palin nude last year, sadly though, none of them were her. Maybe she'd pose nude for Playboy to help fight these debts? I'd definitely buy it if there were pictures of Sarah Palin nude inside.)
Anyhow, I'm getting distracted. Sarah is in the news again:
Gov. Sarah Palin owes more than a half million dollars to an Anchorage law firm that has defended her against ethics complaints, and she may create a legal fund to pay the bill, she said Friday.

Legal bills have mounted fighting complaints that she called partisan, false and frivolous, starting with "the politically motivated Troopergate probe," Palin said in a written response to questions.

Smiley Face Killers

I saw this story on ABC News and it's so bizarre I have to tell you about it.

Across the country, parents are wondering what happened in their sons' final moments. Were they drugged? Did they party too hard? Were they murdered? As the years have passed, a growing group of families have joined forces with two determined former New York City Police Department detectives and an investigative reporter to prove that dozens of young men were murdered in what some have dubbed the "Smiley Face" mystery.

At least 50 men in 11 states have been found dead in the last 10 years, though no police department has said that the cases are connected. Their causes of death have been blamed on drunken accidents -- except one.

Chris Jenkins, a University of Minnesota student, was found dead in 2003 and was the only one whose cause of death was changed to homicide. It also became the reported connection to other suspicious drownings in 11 states in the opinions of retired NYPD detectives Anthony Duarte and Kevin Gannon.
"It is almost a perfect crime," Duarte said.

Perfect, he said, because the water washes away physical evidence and there never seemed to be any witnesses. Most of the men were last seen by friends leaving a bar or a college party.

"They can't be a coincidence or coincidences," Duarte said.

In city after city, the two detectives claim they found a smiley face painted somewhere at the crime scene, what they believe to be a sick signature claiming responsibility. And it looks to be the work of more than one person because there have been strikingly similar deaths and smiley faces in numerous cities and states, some in a relatively short time span, they assert.

Bill Szostak's son Josh went missing in December 2007. He was last seen with college buddies at an Albany, N.Y., bar. His body was later found in the Hudson River.

When police ruled Josh's death an accident, Szostak, a retired fire investigator, went to work. When looking for a personal item near the spot authorities believe Josh went into the water, he found it -- a smiley face.

"It definitely screams homicide," Szostak told "Good Morning America." "Not an accidental death."

Missing Money!

Missing Money (Missingmoney.com) was featured on CBS’s Early Show today. Missingmoney.com helps you located your money, or a relative’s assets, that went missing and are now inside the $33 billion in unclaimed property on government books.
Yes $33 billion of missing money.

Items include more than cash. They can include trust distributions, insurance payments, CDs, even the contents of safe deposit boxes. These can be yours or a relative’s that you are entitled to. Along with the National Association of Unclaimed Property Administrators’ Web site, their website, endorsed by NAUPA, helps search the files for you easier.

Missing Money says the following:
* Officially endorsed by NAUPA and the participating states and provinces.
* Searches are free of charge.
* Data is refreshed monthly.
* A single, easy to use website to search for your missing money.MissingMoney.com is a database of governmental unclaimed property records.
The governmental safeguard your money and return your lost funds Common types of unclaimed property include:

* Bank accounts and safe deposit box contents
* Stocks, mutual funds, bonds, and dividends
* Uncashed checks and wages
* Insurance policies, CD’s, trust funds
* Utility deposits, escrow accounts

Thursday, March 19, 2009

2008 UAW-Dodge 400

The UAW-Dodge 400 was run on March 2 at Las Vegas Motor Speedway. Kyle Busch, a Las Vegas native won the pole and led 56 laps in the race before slipping to 11th. Matt Kenseth also ran strong during the race leading 70 laps and was running third with five laps to go when he was spun by Jeff Gordon. Gordon's car hit hard against the inside retaining wall head on at 180 miles per hour, and the wall did not have a SAFER barrier, this caused his car's radiator to fly out from the chassis into the path of oncoming traffic. Kenseth was able to recover from the spin without hitting anything. The wreck brought a red flag on lap 264 as track workers cleaned up, Jeff Gordon walked away sore from the wreck and made the point that SAFER barriers should be installed to the inside walls. Carl Edwards went on to win his second race in a row and the ninth of his career.

Following the race it was announced that the #99 car driven by Edwards had failed post-race inspection. On March 5, Edwards was docked 100 championship points with team owner Jack Roush also docked 100 owner points. Carl Edwards' crew chief Bob Osbourne was fined $100,000 and suspended for six races until April 30. As the 99 team qualified for the Chase for the Sprint Cup, the team did not receive 10 bonus points for the UAW-Dodge 400 victory used for determining the Chase seeding order.

2008 Auto Club 500

Auto Club 500

The 2008 Auto Club 500 was run on February 24 and February 25 due to rain at the newly renamed Auto Club Speedway of Southern California (previously California Speedway) in Fontana, California. Qualifying was canceled for the Sprint Cup, Nationwide and Craftsman Truck Series after periods of rain showers fell for most of the day on Friday. As a result, the race lineup was determined by the NASCAR rule book. The race began on late Sunday afternoon but was red flagged and eventually postponed until Monday morning. Veteran NASCAR driver Mark Martin made his 700th Sprint Cup Series start. The first caution of the race was brought out when Denny Hamlin lost control in Turn 3 after running over some water that had seeped up through cracks in the track surface. The next caution involved a large wreck when Casey Mears spun out in Turn 2 after also running over water. The wreck collected Casey's teammate Dale Earnhardt, Jr..

Reed Sorenson and Sam Hornish, Jr. were also involved. Hornish hit Sorenson's car causing his car's hood to come up and hit his windshield obscuring his vision leading him to rear end the back of Casey Mears' car causing Mears' car to tumble onto its side. The race was red flagged as track workers cleaned up and tried to repair the water problem by cutting into the track. Drivers who were involved in early wrecks notably Earnhardt, Jr. and Mears complained that NASCAR should not have started the race with water still seeping onto the track. Eventually a seventh caution for rain put the race on hold, at 11:00 PM PT (2:00 AM ET), NASCAR decided to postpone the remaining race laps until Monday morning at 10:00 AM PT (1:00 PM ET) due to seeping water on the track. When the race resumed, it was Hendrick Motorsports teammates Jeff Gordon and Jimmie Johnson leading the race until Carl Edwards took the lead from Johnson to win his first race at Auto Club Speedway. The Nationwide Series race was run one hour after the conclusion of the Sprint Cup race.

2007 NASCAR Results

Number Driver(s) Sponsor(s) Make Team 2007 Owner Points
0 Eric McClure Hefty Chevrolet D.D.L. Motorsports 37th
1 J.J. Yeley/Sterling Marlin Miccosukee Resort & Gaming Chevrolet Phoenix Racing 23rd
4 Regan Smith Ginn Clubs & Resorts Chevrolet Ginn Racing 18th
5 Kyle Busch/Mark Martin/Casey Mears Lowe's/DELPHI Chevrolet Hendrick Motorsports 7th
6 David Ragan (R) Discount Tire Ford Roush Fenway Racing 15th
7 Mike Wallace GEICO Chevrolet Phoenix Racing 17th
9 Kasey Kahne/Scott Riggs/Elliott Sadler/Boris Said/Chase Miller Unilever Brands/Stanley Tools/Charter Communications/Dodge Dealers Dodge Gillett Evernham Motorsports 12th
10 Dave Blaney/Todd Bodine/Brent Sherman/John Graham/John Andretti Camping World/Fan1st.com/ABF Freight Toyota Braun Racing 13th
14 Kyle Krisiloff (R) Clabber Girl/Walgreens/Eli Lilly and Company Ford Carl A. Haas Motorsports 30th
16 Todd Kluever/Greg Biffle 3M Ford Roush Fenway Racing 20th
17 Matt Kenseth/Danny O'Quinn/Michel Jourdain Jr. Arby's/Dish Network/Aflac Ford Roush Fenway Racing 30th
18 Tony Stewart/Aric Almirola/Brad Coleman (R)/Kevin Conway/J.J. Yeley Banquet/Goody's/Carino’s Italian Grill/Z-Line Designs Chevrolet Joe Gibbs Racing 22nd
20 Denny Hamlin/Aric Almirola Rockwell Automation/Z-Line Designs Chevrolet Joe Gibbs Racing 3rd
21 Kevin Harvick/Timothy Peters (R)/Tim McCreadie/Scott Wimmer/P.J. Jones AutoZone/Camping World Chevrolet Richard Childress Racing 6th
22 David Stremme/Mike Bliss/Carlos Contreras Supercuts/Family Dollar Dodge Fitz Motorsports 9th
23 Brad Keselowski (R) Oklahoma Centennial Chevrolet Keith Coleman Racing 40th
24 Casey Mears/Landon Cassill National Guard Chevrolet Hendrick Motorsports 27th
25 David Gilliland/Richard Johns freecreditreport.com Ford Team Rensi Motorsports 36th
27 Ward Burton/Jason Keller/Bobby East Kleenex Ford Brewco Motorsports 19th
28 Robert Richardson (R)/Jeff Green/Johnny Sauter/Nic Jonnson Checkers/Rally's/United States Border Patrol Chevrolet Jay Robinson Racing 34th
29 Jeff Burton/Scott Wimmer Holiday Inn Chevrolet Richard Childress Racing 1st
33 Cale Gale (R)/Kevin Harvick/Tony Stewart/Tony Raines/Ron Fellows Dollar General/Old Spice/RoadLoans.com Chevrolet Kevin Harvick Incorporated 5th
34 Steve Grissom/Jay Sauter Scottish Rite Chevrolet Frank Cicci Racing 38th
35 Bobby Hamilton Jr. McDonald's Ford Team Rensi Motorsports 11th
36 Brent Sherman/Jereny Clements Big Lots Chevrolet McGill Motorsports 33rd
37 Greg Biffle/Jamie McMurray/Bobby East/John Graham/Brad Baker Cub Cadet/Yard-Man/Kick Butt Energy Ballz Ford Brewco Motorsports 27th
38 Jason Leffler Great Clips Toyota Braun Racing 24th
41 Reed Sorenson/David Stremme/Bryan Clauson Juicy Fruit/Winterfresh/Memorex Dodge Chip Ganassi Racing 26th
42 Juan Pablo Montoya (R)/Kevin Hamlin Texaco/Havoline Dodge Chip Ganassi Racing 10th
47 Jon Wood/Kelly Bires Clorox/Armor All Ford Wood Brothers/JTG Racing 32nd
59 Marcos Ambrose (R) Kingsford Ford Wood Brothers/JTG Racing 16th
60 Carl Edwards Miracle-Gro/Scotts/World Financial Group/Dish Network/Aflac/Sharp Aquos Ford Roush Fenway Racing 2nd
66 Steve Wallace/Reed Sorenson HomeLife Communities Dodge Rusty Wallace, Inc. 29th
77 Kertus Davis/Kevin Harvick/Bobby Labonte/Ron Hornaday Dollar General Chevrolet Kevin Harvick Incorporated 14th
88 Shane Huffman/Brad Keselowski/Dale Earnhardt Jr. U.S. NAVY Chevrolet JR Motorsports 25th
90 Stephen Leicht CitiFinancial Ford Yates Racing 21st
99 David Reutimann Aaron's Toyota Michael Waltrip Racing 8th